Code of Criminal Procedure

Edit

Important Points

More...

The CrPC is same for the Appellate Court, Court, Prosecution, Defence, Victim, Accused, Executive Magistrate but the way of studying the code is changed according to the role.


---CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY SS. 1-5

UPHJS2018-I Edit

72. Which classification of offence comes under Criminal Procedure Code :
(a) cognizable and non-cognizable
(b) bailable and non-bailable
(c) summons cases and warrant cases
(d) All the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2014 Edit

67. Which of the following has been specifically excluded from the definition of complaint under section 2 (d) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973?
(A) Protest petition
(B) Joint complaint
(C) Police report
(D) None of the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER II CONSTITUTION OF CRIMINAL COURTS AND OFFICES SS. 6-25-A

UPHJS2018-II Edit

15. As per provisions of Criminal Procedure Code, 1973, Court of Sessions, Judicial Magistrate of First Class, Metropolitan Magistrates and Executive Magistrates are class of :

(a) Revenue Courts (b) Civil Courts

(c) Administrative Courts (d) Criminal Courts

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER III POWER OF COURTS SS.26-35

UPHJS2012 Edit

78. If the offence is punishable with fine only, the imprisonment which the court imposes in default of payment of the fine shall be-
(A) only simple
(B) only rigorous
(C) either simple or rigorous
(D) None of the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER IV A and B

---CHAPTER V ARREST OF PERSONS

UPHJS2018-III Edit

4. Explain the provisions relating to notice of appearance before police officer and procedure of arrest and duties of a Police Officer while making arrest. [8 marks]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2018-II Edit

8 (b) The provisions when police arrest a person without warrant [5]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2014 Edit

15. Is arrest necessary whenever an offence is committed disclosing a cognizable offence? Explain with reference to various Apex Court decisions and relevant provisions as introduction in Cr. P.C. 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2012 Edit


7. (a) Briefly describe the circumstances whereunder a police officer, a private person and a Magistrate may arrest a person without warrant. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2012 Edit


7. (b) ‘A’ is arrested on the charge of committing an offence. The arresting officer, reasonably believing that his medical examination would afford evidence as to commission of the offence, takes him to a Registered Medical Practitioner. ‘A’ resists the examination on the ground of his right under Article 20 (3) of the Constitution of India. Decide, 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER VI PROCESSES TO COMPEL APPEARANCE

UPHJS2018-III Edit

22. A proclamation under Section 82 of Cr.PC can be issued against a person against whom a warrant has been issued. Thus, a proclamation can be issued against:
A. Accused offender
B. A surety
C. A witness
D. All the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-I Edit

17. To whom, as per Section 98 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, a complaint on oath for restoration of an abducted female child to the person having her lawful charge, may be presented ?
(a) The District Magistrate
(b) The Sub Divisional Magistrate
(c) The Magistrate First Class
(d) All the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-I Edit

74. A proclamation under section 82 of Cr. P.C. can be issued against a person against whom a warrant has been issued. Thus a proclamation can be issued against:
(a) accused offender
(b) a surety
(c) a witness
(d) all the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2014 Edit

15. A proclamation under section 82 of Cr.P.C. can be issued against a person against whom a warrant has been issued. Thus a proclamation can be issued against
(A) Accused offender
(B) A surety
(C) A witness
(D) All the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2014 Edit

68. A Magistrate can issue summons to an accused the appear before a police officer. The statement is
(A) True
(B) False
(C) Partly correct
(D) None of the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

57. Period of appearance for proclamation issued under Section 82 of Cr.P.C. is not less than-
(A) 15 days
(B) 30 days
(C) 60 days
(D) 90 days.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

  1. (a) When can a warrant be issued by a Court in lieu of summon ? 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009 Edit


5. (b) Explain the power of the Magistrate to issue proclamation and attachment, its extent, scope and limitations with the help of relevant provisions and case-laws. 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER VII PROCESSES TO COMPEL THE PRODUCTION OF THINGS

---CHAPTER VIIA RECIPROCAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR ASSISTANCE IN CERTAIN MATTERS AND PROCEDURE FOR ATTACHMENT AND FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY

---CHAPTER VIII SECURITY FOR KEEPING THE PEACE AND FOR GOOD BEHAVIOUR

UPHJS2018-II Edit

7 (c) Security for keeping the peace in the cases other than keeping the peace on conviction [5]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER IX ORDER FOR MAINTENANCE OF WIVES, CHILDREN AND PARENTS
Edit

125. Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents.

(1) If any person having sufficient means neglects or refuses to maintain--

(a) his wife, unable to maintain herself, or

(b) his legitimate or illegitimate minor child, whether married or not, unable to maintain itself, or

(c) his legitimate or illegitimate child (not being a married daughter) who has attained majority, where such child is, by reason of any physical or mental abnormality or injury unable to maintain itself, or

(d) his father or mother, unable to maintain himself or herself,

a Magistrate of the first class may, upon proof of such neglect or refusal, order such person to make a monthly allowance for the maintenance of his wife or such child, father or mother, at such monthly rate, as such Magistrate thinks fit, and to pay the same to such person as the Magistrate may from time to time direct :

Provided that the Magistrate may order the father of a minor female child referred to in clause (b) to make such allowance, until she attains her majority, if the Magistrate is satisfied that the husband of such minor female child, if married, is not possessed of sufficient means:

Provided further that the Magistrate may, during the pendency of the proceeding regarding monthly allowance for the maintenance under this sub-section, order such person to make a monthly allowance for the interim maintenance of his wife or such child, father or mother, and the expenses of such proceeding which the Magistrate considers reasonable, and to pay the same to such person as the Magistrate may from time to time direct:

Provided also that an application for the monthly allowance for the interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding under the second proviso shall, as far as possible, be disposed of within sixty days from the date of the service of notice of the application to such person.

Explanation. - For the purposes of this Chapter, -

(a) "minor" means a person who, under the provisions of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 (9 of 1875) is deemed not to have attained his majority,

(b) "wife" includes a woman who has been divorced by, or has obtained a divorce from, her husband and has not re-married.

(2) Any such allowance for the maintenance or interim maintenance and expenses for proceeding shall be payable from the date of the order, or, if so ordered, from the date of the application for maintenance or interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be.

(3) If any person so ordered fails without sufficient cause to comply with the order, any such Magistrate may, for every breach of the order, issue a warrant for levying the amount due in the manner provided for levying fines, and may sentence such person, for the whole or any part of each month's [allowance for the maintenance or the interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be,] remaining unpaid after the execution of the warrant, to imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month or until payment if sooner made :

Provided that no warrant shall be issued for the recovery of any amount due under this section unless application be made to the Court to levy such amount within a period of one year from the date on which it became due:

Provided further that if such person offers to maintain his wife on condition of her living with him, and she refuses to live with him, such Magistrate may consider any grounds of refusal stated by her, and may make an order under this section notwithstanding such offer, if he is satisfied that there is just ground for so doing.

Explanation. - If a husband has contracted marriage with another woman or keeps a mistress, it shall be considered to be just ground for his wife's refusal to live with him.

(4) No wife shall be entitled to receive an [allowance for the maintenance or the interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be,] from her husband under this section if she is living in adultery, or if, without any sufficient reason, she refuses to live with her husband, or if they are living separately by mutual consent.

(5) On proof that any wife in whose favour an order has been made under this section is living in adultery, or that without sufficient reason she refuses to live with her husband, or that they are living separately by mutual consent, the Magistrate shall cancel the order.

126. Procedure.

(1) Proceedings under section 125 may be taken against any person in any district-- (a) where he is, or (b) where he or his wife resides, or (c) where he last resided with his wife, or as the case may be, with the mother of the illegitimate child.

(2) All evidence to such proceedings shall be taken in the presence of the person against whom an order for payment of maintenance is proposed to be made or, when his personal attendance is dispensed with, in the presence of his pleader, and shall be recorded in the manner prescribed for summons cases:

Provided that if the Magistrate is satisfied that the person against whom an order for payment of maintenance is proposed to be made is wilfully avoiding service, or wilfully neglecting to attend the Court, the Magistrate may proceed to hear and determine the case ex parte and any order so made may be set aside for good cause shown on an application made within three months from the date thereof subject to such terms including terms as to payment of costs to the opposite party as the Magistrate may think just and proper.

(3) The Court in dealing with applications under section 125 shall have power to make such order as to costs as may be just.

127. Alteration in allowance.

(1) On proof of a change in the circumstances of any person, receiving under section 125 a monthly allowance, for the maintenance or interim maintenance, or ordered under the same section to pay a monthly allowance for the maintenance, or interim maintenance, to his wife, child, father or mother, as the case may be, the Magistrate may make such alteration, as he thinks fit, in the allowance for the maintenance or the interim maintenance, as the case may be.

(2) Where it appears to the Magistrate that in consequence of any decision of a competent Civil Court, any order made under section 125 should be cancelled or varied, he shall cancel the order or, as the case may be, vary the same accordingly.

(3) Where any order has been made under section 125 in favour of a woman who has been divorced by, or has obtained a divorce from her husband, the Magistrate shall, if he is satisfied that - (a) the woman has, after the date of such divorce, re-married, cancel such order as from the date of her re-marriage; (b) the woman has been divorced by her husband and that she has received, whether before or after the date of the said order, the whole of the sum which, under any customary or personal law applicable to the parties, was payable on such divorce, cancel such order - (i) in the case where such sum was paid before such order, from the date on which such order was made; (ii) in any other case, from the date of expiry of the period, if any, for which maintenance has been actually paid by the husband to the woman; (c) the woman has obtained a divorce from her husband and that she had voluntarily surrendered her rights to [maintenance or interim maintenance as the case may be,] after her divorce, cancel the order from the date thereof.

(4) At the time of making any decree for the recovery of any maintenance or dowry by any person, to whom a [monthly allowance for the maintenance and interim maintenance or any of them has been ordered] to be paid under Section 125, the Civil Court shall take into account the sum which has been paid to, or recovered by such person [as monthly allowance for the maintenance and interim maintenance or any of them, as the case may be, in pursuance of] the said order.

128. Enforcement of order of maintenance.

A copy of the order of [maintenance or interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be] shall be given without payment to the person in whose favour it is made, or to his guardian, if any, or to the person to [whom the allowance for the maintenance or the allowance for the interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be,] is to be paid; and such order may be enforced by any Magistrate in any place where the person against whom it is made may be, on such Magistrate being satisfied as to the identity of the parties and the non-payment of the [allowance, or as the case may be, expenses due].

UPHJS2018-I Edit

96. No wife shall be entitled to receive maintenance from her husband under Section 125 Cr.PC if :
(a) she has obtained a divorce from her husband and has not re-married
(b) she is unable to maintain herself
(c) she refused to live with her husband on the ground that he keeps a mistress
(d) she is living in adultery

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2016 Edit

76. No wife shall be entitled to receive maintenance from her husband under Section 125 Cr. P.C. if :
(a) she has obtained a divorce from her husband and has not re-married
(b) she is unable to maintain herself
(c) she refused to live with her husband on the ground that he keeps a mistress
(d) she is living in adultery

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit


7. (b) A Muslim husband ‘X’ contracts a second marriage. His first wife ‘Z’ claims separate residence and maintenance under the Criminal Procedure Code. ‘X’ pleads defence of his personal law which permits him to take more than one wife. Decide. 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


4. (b) The Criminal Procedure Code gives effect to the duty of a man to maintain his wife, children and parents. When does this duty arise and how is it imposed ? Also discuss important pronouncements of the Supreme Court in the matter of a divorced Muslim wife. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER X MAINTENANCE OF PUBLIC ORDER AND TRANQUILLITY

UPHJS2018-III Edit

39. On a busy junction of road, a huge poster/banner installed by an association is creating obstruction in traffic. Who from amongst the following, on having information, may remove such banner/poster by initiating proceedings under the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure:
A. The District Magistrate
B. The Chief Judicial Magistrate
C. The Sub Divisional Magistrate
D. The Collector

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-I Edit

19. On a busy junction of road, a huge poster/banner installed by an association creating obstruction in traffic. Who from amongst the following, on having information, may remove such banner/poster by initiating proceedings under the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure:
QUESTION DELETED BY HIGH Court Pl Mark A
(a) The District Magistrate
(b) The Chief Judicial Magistrate
(c) The Sub Divisional Magistrate
(d) The Collector
(e) QUESTION DELETED BY HIGH Court

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-III Edit

14 (a) Law relating to “Public Nuisance” under section 133 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. [10]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XI PREVENTIVE ACTION OF THE POLICE

---CHAPTER XII INFORMATION TO THE POLICE AND THEIR POWERS TO INVESTIGATE
Edit

Chapter XII INFORMATION TO THE POLICE AND THEIR POWERS TO INVESTIGATE

Section 154. Information in cognizable cases

(1) Every information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence, if given orally to an officer in charge of a police station, shall be reduced to writing by him or under his direction, and be read over to the informant; and every such information, whether given in writing or reduced to writing as aforesaid, shall be signed by the person giving it, and the substance thereof shall be entered in a book to be kept by such officer in such form as the State Government may prescribe in this behalf:

82[Provided that if the information is given by the woman against whom an offence under Section 326-A, Section 326-B, Section 354, Section 354-A, Section 354-B, Section 354-C, Section 354-D, Section 376, 83[Section 376-A, Section 376-AB, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D, Section 376-DA, Section 376-DB], Section 376-E or Section 509 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) is alleged to have been committed or attempted, then such information shall be recorded, by a woman police officer or any woman officer:

Provided further that

(a) in the event that the person against whom an offence under Section 354, Section 354-A, Section 354-B, Section 354-C, Section 354-D, Section 376, 84[Section 376-A, Section 376-AB, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D, Section 376-DA, Section 376-DB], Section 376-E or Section 509 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) is alleged to have been committed or attempted, is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, then such information shall be recorded by a police officer, at the residence of the person seeking to report such offence or at a convenient place of such person's choice, in the presence of an interpreter or a special educator, as the case may be;

(b) the recording of such information shall be videographed;

(c) the police officer shall get the statement of the person recorded by a Judicial Magistrate under clause (a) of sub-section (5-A) of Section 164 as soon as possible.]

(2) A copy of the information as recorded under sub-section (1) shall be given forthwith, free of cost, to the informant.

(3) Any person aggrieved by a refusal on the part of an officer in charge of a police station to record the information referred to in sub-section (1) may send the substance of such information, in writing and by post, to the Superintendent of Police concerned who, if satisfied that such information discloses the commission of a cognizable offence, shall either investigate the case himself or direct an investigation to be made by any police officer subordinate to him, in the manner provided by this Code, and such officer shall have all the powers of an officer in charge of the police station in relation to that offence.

Corresponding Law: S. 154 of Act V of 1898.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Chhattisgarh. In its application to the State of Chhattisgarh, in sub-section (1) of Section 154, for the words and figures or Section 509 the words, figures, letters and punctuations , Section 509, Section 509-A or Section 509-B shall be substituted. [Vide Ch. Act 25 of 2015, S. 7 (w.e.f. 21-7-2015)]

Section 155. Information as to non-cognizable cases and investigation of such cases

(1) When information is given to an officer in charge of a police station of the commission within the limits of such station of a non-cognizable offence, he shall enter or cause to be entered the substance of the information in a book to be kept by such officer in such form as the State Government may prescribe in this behalf, and refer the informant to the Magistrate.

(2) No police officer shall investigate a non-cognizable case without the order of a Magistrate having power to try such case or commit the case for trial.

(3) Any police officer receiving such order may exercise the same powers in respect of the investigation (except the power to arrest without warrant) as an officer in charge of a police station may exercise in a cognizable case.

(4) Where a case relates to two or more offences of which at least one is cognizable, the case shall be deemed to be a cognizable case, notwithstanding that the other offences are non-cognizable.

Corresponding Law: S. 155 of Act V of 1898.

Section 156. Police officer's power to investigate cognizable case

(1) Any officer in charge of a police station may, without the order of a Magistrate, investigate any cognizable case which a Court having jurisdiction over the local area within the limits of such station would have power to inquire into or try under the provisions of Chapter XIII.

(2) No proceeding of a police officer in any such case shall at any stage be called in question on the ground that the case was one which such officer was not empowered under this section to investigate.

(3) Any Magistrate empowered under Section 190 may order such an investigation as above-mentioned.

Corresponding Law: S. 156 of Act V of 1898.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Goa. In its application to the State of Goa, in Section 156, after sub-section (3), the following proviso shall be inserted, namely

Provided that before passing any orders, the Magistrate shall issue notice to and hear the Public Prosecutor/Government Counsel/Pleader and the Superintendent of Police in the matter. . [Vide Goa Act 15 of 2014, S. 2, dt. 17-9-2014]

Maharashtra. In its application to the State of Maharashtra, in Section 156, after sub-section (3), the following provisos shall be added, namely

Provided that, no Magistrate shall order an investigation under this section against a person who is or was a public servant as defined under any other law for the time being in force, in respect of the act done by such public servant while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duties, except with the previous sanction under Section 197 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) or under any law for the time being in force:

Provided further that, the sanctioning authority shall take a decision within a period of ninety days from the date of the receipt of the proposal for sanction and in case the sanctioning authority fails to take the decision within the said stipulated period of ninety days, the sanction shall be deemed to have been accorded by the sanctioning authority. . [Vide Mah. Act 33 of 2016, S. 2 (w.e.f. the date to be notified)]

Section 157. Procedure for investigation

(1) If, from information received or otherwise, an officer in charge of a police station has reason to suspect the commission of an offence which he is empowered under Section 156 to investigate, he shall forthwith send a report of the same to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of such offence upon a police report and shall proceed in person, or shall depute one of his subordinate officers not being below such rank as the State Government may, by general or special order, prescribe in this behalf, to proceed, to the spot, to investigate the facts and circumstances of the case, and, if necessary, to take measures for the discovery and arrest of the offender:

Provided that

(a) when information as to the commission of any such offence is given against any person by name and the case is not of a serious nature, the officer in charge of a police station need not proceed in person or depute a subordinate officer to make an investigation on the spot,

(b) if it appears to the officer in charge of a police station that there is no sufficient ground for entering on an investigation, he shall not investigate the case:

85[Provided further that in relation to an offence of rape, the recording of statement of the victim shall be conducted at the residence of the victim or in the place of her choice and as far as practicable by a woman police officer in the presence of her parents or guardian or near relatives or social worker of the locality.]

(2) In each of the cases mentioned in clauses (a) and (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1), the officer-in-charge of the police station shall state in his report his reasons for not fully complying with the requirements of that sub-section, and, in the case mentioned in clause (b) of the said proviso, the officer shall also forthwith notify to the informant, if any, in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government, the fact that he will not investigate the case or cause it to be investigated.

Corresponding Law: S. 157 of Act V of 1898.

Section 158. Report how submitted

(1) Every report sent to a Magistrate under Section 157 shall, if the State Government so directs, be submitted through such superior officer of police as the State Government, by general or special order, appoints in that behalf.

(2) Such superior officer may give such instructions to the officer in charge of the police station as he thinks fit, and shall, after recording such instructions on such report, transmit the same without delay to the Magistrate.

Corresponding Law: S. 158 of Act V of 1898.

Section 159. Power to hold investigation or preliminary inquiry

Such Magistrate, on receiving such report, may direct an investigation, or, if he thinks fit, at once proceed, or depute any Magistrate subordinate to him to proceed, to hold a preliminary inquiry into, or otherwise to dispose of, the case in the manner provided in this Code.

Corresponding Law: S. 159 of Act V of 1898.

Section 160. Police officer's power to require attendance of witnesses

(1) Any police officer making an investigation under this Chapter may, by order in writing, require the attendance before himself of any person being within the limits of his own or any adjoining station who, from the information given or otherwise, appears to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case; and such person shall attend as so required:

Provided that no male person 86[under the age of fifteen years or above the age of sixty-five years or a woman or a mentally or physically disabled person] shall be required to attend at any place other than the place in which such male person or woman resides.

(2) The State Government may, by rules made in this behalf, provide for the payment by the police officer of the reasonable expenses of every person, attending under sub-section (1) at any place other than his residence.

Corresponding Law: S. 160 of Act V of 1898.

Section 161. Examination of witnesses by police

(1) Any police officer making an investigation under this Chapter, or any police officer not below such rank as the State Government may, by general or special order, prescribe in this behalf, acting on the requisition of such officer, may examine orally any person supposed to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case.

(2) Such person shall be bound to answer truly all questions relating to such case put to him by such officer, other than questions the answers to which would have a tendency to expose him to a criminal charge or to a penalty or forfeiture.

(3) The police officer may reduce into writing any statement made to him in the course of an examination under this section; and if he does so, he shall make a separate and true record of the statement of each such person whose statement he records:

87[Provided that statement made under this sub-section may also be recorded by audio-video electronic means:]

88[Provided further that the statement of a woman against whom an offence under Section 354, Section 354-A, Section 354-B, Section 354-C, Section 354-D, Section 376, 89[Section 376-A, Section 376-AB, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D, Section 376-DA, Section 376-DB], Section 376-E or Section 509 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) is alleged to have been committed or attempted shall be recorded, by a woman police officer or any woman officer.]

Corresponding Law: S. 161 of Act V of 1898.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Chhattisgarh. In its application to the State of Chhattisgarh, second proviso to sub-section (3) of Section 161, shall be substituted, namely

Provided further that statement of the woman against whom an offence under Section 354, Section 354-A, Section 354-B, Section 354-C, Section 354-D, Section 354-E, Section 376, Section 376-A, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D, Section 376-E, Section 509, Section 509-A orSection 509-B of the Indian Penal Code, is alleged to have been committed or attempted, shall be recorded, as far as possible, by woman police officer and shall also be recorded by audio-video means, as far as possible, and it shall be the duty of such police officer to take all such steps as are necessary to protect the identity of the woman. [Vide Chhattisgarh Act 25 of 2015, S. 8 (w.e.f. 21-7-2015)]

Section 162. Statements to police not to be signed: Use of statements in evidence

(1) No statement made by any person to a police officer in the course of an investigation under this Chapter, shall, if reduced to writing, be signed by the person making it; nor shall any such statement or any record thereof, whether in a police diary or otherwise, or any part of such statement or record, be used for any purpose, save as hereinafter provided, at any inquiry or trial in respect of any offence under investigation at the time when such statement was made:

Provided that when any witness is called for the prosecution in such inquiry or trial whose statement has been reduced into writing as aforesaid, any part of his statement, if duly proved, may be used by the accused, and with the permission of the Court, by the prosecution, to contradict such witness in the manner provided by Section 145 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872); and when any part of such statement is so used, any part thereof may also be used in the re-examination of such witness, but for the purpose only of explaining any matter referred to in his cross-examination.

(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to apply to any statement falling within the provisions of clause (1) of Section 32 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), or to affect the provisions of Section 27 of that Act.

Explanation. An omission to state a fact or circumstance in the statement referred to in sub-section (1) may amount to contradiction if the same appears to be significant and otherwise relevant having regard to the context in which such omission occurs and whether any omission amounts to a contradiction in the particular context shall be a question of fact.

Corresponding Law: S. 162 of Act V of 1898.

Section 163. No inducement to be offered

(1) No police officer or other person in authority shall offer or make, or cause to be offered or made, any such inducement, threat or promise as is mentioned in Section 24 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872).

(2) But no police officer or other person shall prevent, by any caution or otherwise, any person from making in the course of any investigation under this Chapter any statement which he may be disposed to make of his own free will:

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall affect the provisions of sub-section (4) of Section 164.

Corresponding Law: S. 163 of Act V of 1898.

Section 164. Recording of confessions and statements

(1) Any Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate may, whether or not he has jurisdiction in the case, record any confession or statement made to him in the course of an investigation under this Chapter or under any other law for the time being in force, or at any time afterwards before the commencement of the inquiry or trial:

90[Provided that any confession or statement made under this sub-section may also be recorded by audio-video electronic means in the presence of the advocate of the person accused of an offence:

Provided further that no confession shall be recorded by a police officer on whom any power of a Magistrate has been conferred under any law for the time being in force.]

(2) The Magistrate shall, before recording any such confession, explain to the person making it that he is not bound to make a confession and that, if he does so, it may be used as evidence against him; and the Magistrate shall not record any such confession unless, upon questioning the person making it, he has reason to believe that it is being made voluntarily.

(3) If at any time before the confession is recorded, the person appearing before the Magistrate states that he is not willing to make the confession, the Magistrate shall not authorise the detention of such person in police custody.

(4) Any such confession shall be recorded in the manner provided in Section 281 for recording the examination of an accused person and shall be signed by the person making the confession; and the Magistrate shall make a memorandum at the foot of such record to the following effect:

I have explained to (name) that he is not bound to make a confession and that, if he does so, any confession he may make may be used as evidence against him and I believe that this confession was voluntarily made. It was taken in my presence and hearing, and was read over to the person making it and admitted by him to be correct, and it contains a full and true account of the statement made by him.

(Signed) A.B.

Magistrate.

(5) Any statement (other than a confession) made under sub-section (1) shall be recorded in such manner hereinafter provided for the recording of evidence as is, in the opinion of the Magistrate, best fitted to the circumstances of the case; and the Magistrate shall have power to administer oath to the person whose statement is so recorded.

91[(5-A)(a) In cases punishable under Section 354, Section 354-A, Section 354-B, Section 354-C, Section 354-D, sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of Section 376, 92[Section 376-A, Section 376-AB, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D, Section 376-DA, Section 376-DB], Section 376-E or Section 509 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), the Judicial Magistrate shall record the statement of the person against whom such offence has been committed in the manner prescribed in sub-section (5), as soon as the commission of the offence is brought to the notice of the police:

Provided that if the person making the statement is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, the Magistrate shall take the assistance of an interpreter or a special educator in recording the statement:

Provided further that if the person making the statement is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, the statement made by the person, with the assistance of an interpreter or a special educator, shall be videographed.

(b) A statement recorded under clause (a) of a person, who is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, shall be considered a statement in lieu of examination-in-chief, as specified in Section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872) such that the maker of the statement can be cross-examined on such statement, without the need for recording the same at the time of trial.]

(6) The Magistrate recording a confession or statement under this section shall forward it to the Magistrate by whom the case is to be inquired into or tried.

Corresponding Law: S. 164 of Act V of 1898.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep. After sub-section (1) of Section 164, the following sub-section shall be inserted, namely:

(1-A) Where, in any island, there is no Judicial Magistrate for the time being, and the State Government is of opinion that it is necessary and expedient so to do, that Government may, after consulting the High Court, specially empower any Executive Magistrate (not being a police officer), to exercise the power conferred by sub-section (1) on a Judicial Magistrate, and thereupon references in Section 164 to a Judicial Magistrate shall be construed as references to the Executive Magistrate so empowered. Reg. 1 of 1974, S. 5 (30-3-1974)

Chhattisgarh. In clause (a) of sub-section (5-A) of Section 164 of the Code, for the words and figures or Section 509 the punctuation, words and figures , Section 376-F, Section 509, Section 509-A or Section 509-B shall be substituted. [Vide Chhattisgarh Act 25 of 2015, S. 9 (w.e.f. 21-7-2015)]

93[164-A. Medical examination of the victim of rape. (1) Where, during the stage when an offence of committing rape or attempt to commit rape is under investigation, it is proposed to get the person of the woman with whom rape is alleged or attempted to have been committed or attempted, examined by a medical expert, such examination shall be conducted by a registered medical practitioner employed in a hospital run by the Government or a local authority and in the absence of such a practitioner, by any other registered medical practitioner, with the consent of such woman or of a person competent to give such consent on her behalf and such woman shall be sent to such registered medical practitioner within twenty-four hours from the time of receiving the information relating to the commission of such offence.

(2) The registered medical practitioner, to whom such woman is sent, shall, without delay, examine her person and prepare a report of his examination giving the following particulars, namely:

(i) the name and address of the woman and of the person by whom she was brought;

(ii) the age of the woman;

(iii) the description of material taken from the person of the woman for DNA profiling;

(iv) marks of injury, if any, on the person of the woman;

(v) general mental condition of the woman; and

(vi) other material particulars in reasonable detail.

(3) The report shall state precisely the reasons for each conclusion arrived at.

(4) The report shall specifically record that the consent of the woman or of the person competent to give such consent on her behalf to such examination had been obtained.

(5) The exact time of commencement and completion of the examination shall also be noted in the report.

(6) The registered medical practitioner shall, without delay forward the report to the investigating officer who shall forward it to the Magistrate referred to in Section 173 as part of the documents referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (5) of that section.

(7) Nothing in this section shall be construed as rendering lawful any examination without the consent of the woman or of any person competent to give such consent on her behalf.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section, examination and registered medical practitioner shall have the same meanings as in Section 53]

STATE AMENDMENTS

Chhattisgarh. In its application to the State of Chhattisgarh, in Section 164-A, except explanation clause, for the words registered medical practitioner , where it occurs for the first time, the words female registered medical practitoner shall be substituted. [Vide Chhattisgarh Act 25 of 2015, S. 10 (w.e.f. 21-7-2015)]

Notes on Clauses to 2005 Amendment This clause seeks to insert new Section 164-A in the Code to provide for a medical examination of the victim of a rape by a registered medical practitioner employed in a hospital run by the Government or a local authority and in the absence of such practitioner by any other registered medical practitioner.

Section 165. Search by police officer

(1) Whenever an officer in charge of a police station or a police officer making an investigation has reasonable grounds for believing that anything necessary for the purposes of an investigation into any offence which he is authorised to investigate may be found in any place within the limits of the police station of which he is in charge, or to which he is attached, and that such thing cannot in his opinion be otherwise obtained without undue delay, such officer may, after recording in writing the grounds of his belief and specifying in such writing, so far as possible, the thing for which search is to be made, search, or cause search to be made, for such thing in any place within the limits of such station.

(2) A police officer proceeding under sub-section (1), shall, if practicable, conduct the search in person.

(3) If he is unable to conduct the search in person, and there is no other person competent to make the search present at the time, he may, after recording in writing his reasons for so doing, require any officer subordinate to him to make the search, and he shall deliver to such subordinate officer an order in writing, specifying the place to be searched, and so far as possible, the thing for which search is to be made; and such subordinate officer may thereupon search for such thing in such place.

(4) The provisions of this Code as to search-warrants and the general provisions as to searches contained in Section 100 shall, so far as may be, apply to a search made under this section.

(5) Copies of any record made under sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) shall forthwith be sent to the nearest Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence, and the owner or occupier of the place searched shall, on application, be furnished, free of cost, with a copy of the same by the Magistrate.

Corresponding Law: S. 165 of Act V of 1898.

Section 166. When officer in charge of police station may require another to issue search-warrant

(1) An officer in charge of a police station or a police officer not being below the rank of sub-inspector making an investigation may require an officer in charge of another police station, whether in the same or a different district, to cause a search to be made in any place, in any case in which the former officer might cause such search to be made, within the limits of his own station.

(2) Such officer, on being so required, shall proceed according to the provisions of Section 165, and shall forward the thing found, if any, to the officer at whose request the search was made.

(3) Whenever there is reason to believe that the delay occasioned by requiring an officer in charge of another police station to cause a search to be made under sub-section (1) might result in evidence of the commission of an offence being concealed or destroyed, it shall be lawful for an officer in charge of a police station or a police officer making any investigation under this Chapter to search, or cause to be searched, any place in the limits of another police station in accordance with the provisions of Section 165, as if such place were within the limits of his own police station.

(4) Any officer conducting a search under sub-section (3) shall forthwith send notice of the search to the officer in charge of the police station within the limits of which such place is situate, and shall also send with such notice a copy of the list (if any) prepared under Section 100, and shall also send to the nearest Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence, copies of the records referred to in sub-sections (1) and (3) of Section 165.

(5) The owner or occupier of the place searched shall, on application, be furnished free of cost with a copy of any record sent to the Magistrate under sub-section (4).

Corresponding Law: S. 166 of Act V of 1898.

94[166-A. Letter of request to competent authority for investigation in a country or place outside India. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, if, in the course of an investigation into an offence, an application is made by the investigating officer or any officer superior in rank to the investigating officer that evidence may be available in a country or place outside India, any Criminal Court may issue a letter of request to a Court or an authority in that country or place competent to deal with such request to examine orally any person supposed to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case and to record his statement made in the course of such examination and also to require such person or any other person to produce any document or thing which may be in his possession pertaining to the case and to forward all the evidence so taken or collected or the authenticated copies thereof or the thing so collected to the Court issuing such letter.

(2) The letter of request shall be transmitted in such manner as the Central Government may specify in this behalf.

(3) Every statement recorded or document or thing received under sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the evidence collected during the course of investigation under this Chapter.

166-B. Letter of request from a country or place outside India to a Court or an authority for investigation in India. (1) Upon receipt of a letter of request from a Court or an authority in a country or place outside India competent to issue such letter in that country or place for the examination of any person or production of any document or thing in relation to an offence under investigation in that country or place, the Central Government may, if it thinks fit,

(i) forward the same to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate or such Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate as he may appoint in this behalf, who shall thereupon summon the person before him and record his statement or cause the document or thing to be produced; or

(ii) send the letter to any police officer for investigation, who shall thereupon investigate into the offence in the same manner,

as if the offence had been committed within India.

(2) All the evidence taken or collected under sub-section (1), or authenticated copies thereof or the thing so collected, shall be forwarded by the Magistrate or police officer, as the case may be, to the Central Government for transmission to the Court or the authority issuing the letter of request, in such manner as the Central Government may deem fit.]

Section 167. Procedure when investigation cannot be completed in twenty-four hours

(1) Whenever any person is arrested and detained in custody, and it appears that the investigation cannot be completed within the period of twenty-four hours fixed by Section 57, and there are grounds for believing that the accusation or information is well-founded, the officer in charge of the police station or the police officer making the investigation, if he is not below the rank of sub-inspector, shall forthwith transmit to the nearest Judicial Magistrate a copy of the entries in the diary hereinafter prescribed relating to the case, and shall at the same time forward the accused to such Magistrate.

(2) The Magistrate to whom an accused person is forwarded under this section may, whether he has or has not jurisdiction to try the case, from time to time, authorise the detention of the accused in such custody as such Magistrate thinks fit, for a term not exceeding fifteen days in the whole; and if he has no jurisdiction to try the case or commit it for trial, and considers further detention unnecessary, he may order the accused to be forwarded to a Magistrate having such jurisdiction:

Provided that

95[(a) the Magistrate may authorise the detention of the accused person, otherwise than in the custody of the police, beyond the period of fifteen days, if he is satisfied that adequate grounds exist for doing so, but no Magistrate shall authorise the detention of the accused person in custody under this paragraph for a total period exceeding,

(i) ninety days, where the investigation relates to an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term of not less than ten years;

(ii) sixty days, where the investigation relates to any other offence, and, on the expiry of the said period of ninety days, or sixty days, as the case may be, the accused person shall be released on bail if he is prepared to and does furnish bail, and every person released on bail under this sub-section shall be deemed to be so released under the provisions of Chapter XXXIII for the purposes of that Chapter;]

96[(b) no Magistrate shall authorise detention of the accused in custody of the police under this section unless the accused is produced before him in person for the first time and subsequently every time till the accused remains in the custody of the police, but the Magistrate may extend further detention in judicial custody on production of the accused either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage;]

(c) no Magistrate of the second class, not specially empowered in this behalf by the High Court, shall authorise detention in the custody of the police.

97[Explanation I. For the avoidance of doubts, it is hereby declared that, notwithstanding the expiry of the period specified in paragraph (a), the accused shall be detained in custody so long as he does not furnish bail.]

98[Explanation II. If any question arises whether an accused person was produced before the Magistrate as required under clause (b), the production of the accused person may be proved by his signature on the order authorising detention or by the order certified by the Magistrate as to production of the accused person through the medium of electronic video linkage, as the case may be:]

99[Provided further that in case of a woman under eighteen years of age, the detention shall be authorised to be in the custody of a remand home or recognised social institution.]

100[(2-A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), the officer in charge of the police station or the police officer making the investigation, if he is not below the rank of a sub-inspector, may, where a Judicial Magistrate is not available, transmit to the nearest Executive Magistrate, on whom the powers of a Judicial Magistrate, or Metropolitan Magistrate have been conferred, a copy of the entry in the diary hereinafter prescribed relating to the case, and shall, at the same time, forward the accused to such Executive Magistrate, and thereupon such Executive Magistrate, may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, authorise the detention of the accused person in such custody as he may think fit for a term not exceeding seven days in the aggregate; and, on the expiry of the period of detention so authorised, the accused person shall be released on bail except where an order for further detention of the accused person has been made by a Magistrate competent to make such order; and, where an order for such further detention is made, the period during which the accused person was detained in custody under the orders made by an Executive Magistrate under this sub-section, shall be taken into account in computing the period specified in paragraph (a) of the proviso to sub-section (2):

Provided that before the expiry of the period aforesaid, the Executive Magistrate shall transmit to the nearest Judicial Magistrate the records of the case together with a copy of the entries in the diary relating to the case which was transmitted to him by the officer in charge of the police station or the police officer making the investigation, as the case may be.]

(3) A Magistrate authorising under this section detention in the custody of the police shall record his reasons for so doing.

(4) Any Magistrate other than the Chief Judicial Magistrate making such order shall forward a copy of his order, with his reasons for making it to the Chief Judicial Magistrate.

(5) If in any case triable by Magistrate as a summons-case, the investigation is not concluded within a period of six months from the date on which the accused was arrested, the Magistrate shall make an order stopping further investigation into the offence unless the officer making the investigation satisfies the Magistrate that for special reasons and in the interests of justice the continuation of the investigation beyond the period of six months is necessary.

(6) Where any order stopping further investigation into an offence has been made under sub-section (5), the Sessions Judge may, if he is satisfied, on an application made to him or otherwise, that further investigation into the offence ought to be made, vacate the order made under sub-section (5) and direct further investigation to be made into the offence subject to such directions with regard to bail and other matters as he may specify.

Corresponding Law: S. 167 of Act V of 1898.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep. In Section 167,

(i) in sub-section (1), after the words nearest Judicial Magistrate , the words or, if there is no Judicial Magistrate in an island, to an Executive Magistrate functioning in that island shall be inserted;

(ii) after sub-section (1), the following sub-section shall be inserted, namely:

(1-A) Where a copy of the entires in the diary is transmitted to an Executive Magistrate, reference in Section 167 to a Magistrate shall be construed as reference to such Executive Magistrate. ;

(iii) to sub-section (3), the following proviso shall be added, namely:

Provided that no Executive Magistrate, other than the District Magistrate or Sub-Divisional Magistrate, shall, unless he is specially empowered in this behalf by the State Government, authorise detention in the custody of the police. ;

(iv) to sub-section (4), the following proviso shall be added, namely:

Provided that, where such order is made by an Executive Magistrate, the Magistrate making the order shall forward a copy of the order, with his reasons for making it, to the Executive Magistrate to whom he is immediately subordinate. Reg. 1 of 1974, S. 5 (30-3-1974).

Andhra Pradesh. In Section 167 in its application to the whole of State of Andhra Pradesh, in sub-section (2),

(i) to clause (b), the following shall be added at the end, namely: either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage;

(ii) in the Explanation II thereunder, for the words an accused person was produced , the words an accused person was produced in person or as the case may be through the medium of electronic video linkage shall be substituted. [vide A.P. Act 31 of 2001, S. 2 (w.r.e.f. 6-12-2000).]

Chhattisgarh. (1) In clause (b) of sub-section (2) of Section 167 for the words any the words police shall be substituted.

(2) After clause (b) of sub-section (2) of Section 167, the following new sub-clause (bb) shall be added, namely:

(bb) No Magistrate shall authorise detention of the accused person other than in the custody of the police under this section unless the accused is produced before him either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage and represented by his pleader in the court.

(3) In Explanation II, after words was produced the words from police custody shall be added.

(4) After Explanation II, the following new explanation shall be added,

III. If any question arises whether an accused person was produced from otherwise than in the custody of the police in person or (as the case may be) through medium of electronic video linkage before the Magistrate as required under paragraph (bb), the production of the accused person may be proved by his or his pleader's signature on the order authorising detention. [Vide Chhattisgarh Act 13 of 2006, S. 3, w.e.f. 13.3.2006]

Delhi. In its application to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, in Section 167, in sub-section (2):

(i) for clause (b), the following shall be substituted, namely:

(b) no Magistrate shall authorise detention in any custody under this section unless the accused is produced before him either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage:

Provided that if the accused is in police custody, no Magistrate shall authorise his detention in any custody unless the accused is produced before him in person; ;

(ii) for the Explanation II thereunder, the following shall be substituted, namely:

Explanation II. If any question arises whether an accused person was produced in person or, as the case may be, through the medium of electronic video linkage before the magistrate as required under paragraph (b), the production of the accused person may be proved by his signature on the order authorizing his detention or by video recording of the proceedings, as the case may be. Delhi Act 4 of 2004, S. 2 (16-8-2004).

Gujarat. (1) In the proviso to sub-section (2) of Section 167 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, in its application to the State of Gujarat,

(i) for paragraph (a), the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:

(a) the Magistrate may authorise detention of the accused person otherwise than in the custody of the police, beyond the period of fifteen days, if he is satisfied that adequate grounds exist for doing so, but no Magistrate shall authorise the detention of the accused person in custody under this section for a total period exceeding

(i) one hundred and twenty days, where the investigation relates to an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term of not less than ten years;

(ii) sixty days, where the investigation relates to any other offence;

and on the expiry of the said period of one hundred and twenty days, or sixty days, as the case may be, the accused person shall be released on bail if he is prepared to and does furnish bail; and every person released on bail under this section shall be deemed to be so released under the provisions of Chapter XXXIII for the purposes of that Chapter ;

(ii) in paragraph (b), for the words no Magistrate shall , the words no Magistrate shall, except for reasons to be recorded in writing , shall be substituted;

(iii) the Explanation shall be numbered as Explanation II, and, before Explanation II as so numbered, the following Explanation shall be inserted, namely:

Explanation I. For the avoidance of doubts, it is hereby declared that, notwithstanding the expiry of the period specified in paragraph (a) the accused person shall be detained in custody so long as he does not furnish bail.

Amendment to apply to pending investigation. The provisions of Section 167 of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, as amended by this Act, shall apply to every investigation pending immediately before the commencement of this Act, if the period of detention of the accused person, otherwise than in the custody of the police, authorised under that section, had not, at such commencement, exceeded sixty days. President Act 21 of 1976, S. 2(7-5-1977).

(2) In the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974) (hereinafter referred to as the principal Act ) in its application to the State of Gujarat, in Section 167, in sub-section (2)

(1) in the proviso, for paragraph (b), the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:

(b) no Magistrate shall authorise further detention in any custody under this section unless

(i) where the accused is in the custody of police, he is produced in person before the Magistrate, and

(ii) where the accused is otherwise than in the custody of the police, he is produced before the Magistrate either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage, in accordance with the direction of the Magistrate. ;

(2) in Explanation II, after the words whether an accused person was produced before the Magistrate , the words in person or, as the case may be, through the medium of electronic video linkage shall be inserted. [vide Gujarat Act 31 of 2003, S. 2 (w.e.f. 16-8-2003)].

Madhya Pradesh. In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in sub-section (2) of Section 167,

(i) in the proviso, for paragraph (b), the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:

(b) no Magistrate shall authorise detention in any custody under this section unless the accused is produced before him in person for the first time and subsequently every time till such time the accused remains in the custody of police, but the Magistrate may extend further detention in judicial custody on production of accused either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage; ;

(ii) for Explanation II, the following Explanation shall be substituted, namely:

Explanation II. If any question arises whether an accused person was produced before the Magistrate as required under paragraph (b), the production of the accused person may be proved by his signature on the order authorising detention or by the order certified by the Magistrate as to production of the accused person through the medium of electronic video linkage, as the case may be. . [Vide M.P. Act 2 of 2008, S. 3]

Maharashtra. In Section 167, in its application to the State of Maharashtra,

(a) in sub-section (2), in the proviso, for paragraph (b), the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:

(b) no Magistrate shall authorize detention in any custody, of the accused person under this section unless, the accused person is produced before him in person, and for any extension of custody otherwise than the extension in the police custody, the accused person may be produced either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage. ;

(b) in Explanation II, for the words an accused person was produced the words an accused person was produced in person, or as the case may be, through the medium of electronic video linkage shall be substituted. [Vide Mah. Act 8 of 2005, S. 2 (w.r.e.f. 25-11-2004)]

Manipur. In its application to the State of Manipur, in clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (2)

(a) for the words sixty days wherever they occur, the words one hundred twenty days shall be substituted.

(b) for the words ninety days wherever they occur, the words one hundred eighty days shall be substituted. [Vide Manipur Act 3 of 1983, S. 3 (w.e.f. 22-3-1983)]

Meghalaya. In its application to the State of Meghalaya, during the period 2-4-1988 to 2-10-1988 the Act is in force in the areas within the local limits of the Municipality of Shillong, in East Khasi Hills District, in S. 167

(a) in sub-section (1)

(i) for the words nearest Judicial Magistrate the words Deputy Commissioner or Assistant to the Deputy Commissioner shall be substituted,

(ii) for the words such Magistrate occurring at the end, the word him shall be substituted.

(b) in sub-section (2), for the word Magistrate occurring at the beginning, the words Deputy Commissioner, or Assistant to the Deputy Commissioner and for the words such Magistrate occurring between the words as and thinks the word He shall be substituted.

(c) in the provisos (a), (b) and the explanation below proviso (c) to sub-section (2) for the word Magistrate wherever it occurs the words Deputy Commissioner or Assistant to the Deputy Commissioner shall be substituted.

(d) in the proviso (c) to sub-section (2), the word Magistrate the words Assistant to the Deputy Commissioner shall be substituted.

(e) in sub-section (3) for the words A Magistrate the words The Deputy Commissioner or Assistant to the Deputy Commissioner shall be substituted.

(f) for sub-section (4), the following shall be substituted, namely (4) Any Assistant to the Deputy Commissioner making such order shall forward a copy of his order with his reasons for making it, to the Deputy Commissioner.

(g) in sub-section (5), for the words a Magistrate occurring at the beginning and Magistrate occurring elsewhere, the words an Assistant to the Deputy Commissioner and Assistant to the Deputy Commissioner respectively shall be substituted.

(h) in sub-section (6) for the words Sessions Judge the words Deputy Commissioner shall be substituted. Megha Act 4 of 1988, S. 4 (2-4-1988 up to 2-10-1988).

Orissa. In Section 167 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), in paragraph (a) of the proviso to sub-section (2),

(i) for the words under this paragraph the words under this section shall be substituted; and

(ii) for the words ninety days wherever they occur, the words one hundred and twenty days shall be substituted. [vide Orissa Act 11 of 1997, S. 2 (5-11-1997).]

Punjab. (1) In Section 167(2), amendment that for fifteen days at both places read thirty days by President Act 1 of 1984 reversed by Punjab Act 9 of 1986 (4-4-1986) which Act also repealed Punjab Act 22 of 1983.

(2) In its application to the State of Punjab, in Section 167, in sub-section (2), in the proviso,

(A) for paragraph (b), the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:

(b) no Magistrate shall authorise further detention in any custody under this section unless,

(i) where the accused is in the custody of the police, he is produced in person before the Magistrate; and

(ii) where the accused in custody, otherwise that in the costody of the police, is produced before the Magistrate either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage, in accordance with the directions of the Magistrate; ; and

(B) in Explanation II, for the words an accused person was peoduced , the words and sign an accused person was produced either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage, as the case may be, shall be substituted. [Vide Punjab Act 24 of 2008, S. 2]

Rajasthan. In Section 167, in its application to the State of Rajasthan, in proviso to sub-section (2)

(i) for the existing paragraph (b) the following shall be substituted, namely:

(b) where the accused is in police custody, no Magistrate shall authorise detention in any custody under this section unless the accused is produced before him in person;

(bb) where the accused is in judicial custody, no Magistrate shall authorise detention in any custody under this section unless the accused is produced before him either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage; .

(ii) for the existing Explanation II, following shall be substituted, namely:

Explanation II. If any question arises whether an accused person was produced before the Magistrate as required under paragraph (b) and (bb), the production of the accused person may be proved

(i) by his signature on the order authorising detention, if he is produced in person; or

(ii) by a certificate to the effect that he was produced through the medium of electronic video linkage recorded by the Magistrate on the order authorising detention, if he is produced through the medium of electronic video linkage. . [Vide Rajasthan Act 16 of 2005, S. 2 (w.e.f. 8-7-2005)]

Tamil Nadu. In Section 167,

(1) in the proviso to sub-section (2), for clause (b), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:

(b) no Magistrate shall authorise the detention of an accused person under this section,

(i) if the accused is in the custody of police, unless the accused is physically produced before him; and

(ii) if the accused is detained otherwise than in the custody of police, unless the accused is produced before him either in person or through the media of electronic video linkage .

(2) in the Explanation-II under sub-section (2), after the expression an accused person was produced , the expression in person or, as the case may be, through the media of electronic video linkage shall be inserted. [Vide Tamil Nadu Act 29 of 2003, S. 2, w.e.f. 17-9-2003]

Tripura. In the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (hereinafter referred to as the Principal Act), in Section 167, in its application to the State of Tripura, in paragraph (a) of the proviso to sub-section (2)

(a) for the words ninety days wherever they occur, the words one hundred eighty days shall be substituted;

(b) for the words sixty days wherever they occur, the words one hundred twenty days shall be substituted. [vide Tripura Act 5 of 1997, S. 2 (w.e.f. 27-1-1998) for 3 years. In this regard S. 1(4) reads:

(4) This Act shall remain in force for three years from the date of commencement:

Provided that the State Government may, from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette, extend the period, as aforesaid, for such period not exceeding one year at a time as may be specified in the notification; so, however, that the total period of such extension (after the expiry of first three years) shall not exceed two years and wherein such notification is issued, a copy thereof shall be laid, as soon as may be, before the Legislative Assembly of Tripura. ]

Further extended by Tripura Act 1 of 2004, S. 2 (w.e.f. 6-2-2004 up to and inclusive of 6-2-2007).

West Bengal. 1. In the proviso to sub-section (2) of Section 167 of the principal Act, for clause (b), the following clause shall be substituted:

(b) no Magistrate shall authorise detention under this section

(i) in the police custody, unless the accused is produced before him in person everytime till the accused is in police custody;

(ii) in the judicial custody, unless the accused is produced before him either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage; [Vide W.B. Act 20 of 2004, S. 3, w.e.f. a date to be notified]

2. (1) For sub-section (5), the following sub-section shall be substituted:

(5) If, in respect of

(i) any case triable by a Magistrate as a summons case, the investigation is not concluded within a period of six months, or

(ii) any case exclusively triable by Court of Session or a case under Chapter XVIII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), the investigation is not concluded within period of three years, or

(iii) any case other than those mentioned in clauses (i) and (ii), the investigation is not concluded within a period of two years.

from the date on which the accused was arrested or made his appearance, the Magistrate shall make an order stopping further investigation into the offence and shall discharge the accused unless the officer making the investigation satisfies the Magistrate that for special reasons and in the interest of justice the continuation of the investigation beyond the periods mentioned in this sub-section is necessary. ;

(2) in sub-section (6), after the words any order stopping further investigation into an offence has been made , the words and the accused has been discharged shall be inserted. [Vide W.B. Act 24 of 1988, S. 4 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)].

SECTION 167-A

Haryana. After Section 167 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the following section shall be inserted, namely:

167-A. Procedure on arrest by Magistrate. For the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby declared that the provisions of Section 167 shall, so far as may be, apply also in relation to any person arrested by, or under any order or direction of, a Magistrate, whether executive or judicial . Haryana Act 20 of 1981 (w.e.f. 22-12-1981).

Uttar Pradesh. Inserted the following new Section 167-A:

167-A. Procedure on arrest by Magistrate. For the avoidance of doubts, it is hereby declared that the provisions of Section 167 shall, so far as may be, apply also in relation to any person arrested by, or under any order or direction of, a Magistrate, whether executive or judicial. U.P. Act 18 of 1977, S. 2 (w.e.f. 5-11-1977).

Section 168. Report of investigation by subordinate police officer

When any subordinate police officer has made any investigation under this Chapter, he shall report the result of such investigation to the officer in charge of the police station.

Corresponding Law: S. 168 of Act V of 1898.

Section 169. Release of accused when evidence deficient

If, upon an investigation under this Chapter, it appears to the officer in charge of the police station that there is not sufficient evidence or reasonable ground of suspicion to justify the forwarding of the accused to a Magistrate, such officer shall, if such person is in custody, release him on his executing a bond, with or without sureties, as such officer may direct, to appear, if and when so required, before a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence on a police report, and to try the accused or commit him for trial.

Corresponding Law: S. 169 of Act V of 1898.

Section 170. Cases to be sent to Magistrate when evidence is sufficient

(1) If, upon an investigation under this Chapter, it appears to the officer in charge of the police station that there is sufficient evidence or reasonable ground as aforesaid, such officer shall forward the accused under custody to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence upon a police report and to try the accused or commit him for trial, or, if the offence is bailable and the accused is able to give security, shall take security from him for his appearance before such Magistrate on a day fixed and for his attendance from day to day before such Magistrate until otherwise directed.

(2) When the officer in charge of a police station forwards an accused person to a Magistrate or takes security for his appearance before such Magistrate under this section, he shall send to such Magistrate any weapon or other article which it may be necessary to produce before him, and shall require the complainant (if any) and so many of the persons who appear to such officer to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case as he may think necessary, to execute a bond to appear before the Magistrate as thereby directed and prosecute or give evidence (as the case may be) in the matter of the charge against the accused.

(3) If the Court of the Chief Judicial Magistrate is mentioned in the bond, such Court shall be held to include any Court to which such Magistrate may refer the case for inquiry or trial, provided reasonable notice of such reference is given to such complainant or persons.

(4) The officer in whose presence the bond is executed shall deliver a copy thereof to one of the persons who executed it, and shall then send to the Magistrate the original with his report.

Corresponding Law: S. 170 of Act V of 1898.

Section 171. Complainant and witnesses not to be required to accompany police officer and not to be subjected to restraint

No complainant or witness on his way to any Court shall be required to accompany a police officer, or shall be subjected to unnecessary restraint or inconvenience, or required to give any security for his appearance other than his own bond:

Provided that, if any complainant or witness refuses to attend or to execute a bond as directed in Section 170, the officer in charge of the police station may forward him in custody to the Magistrate, who may detain him in custody until he executes such bond, or until the hearing of the case is completed.

Corresponding Law: S. 171 of Act V of 1898.

Section 172. Diary of proceedings in investigation

(1) Every police officer making an investigation under this Chapter shall day by day enter his proceedings in the investigation in a dairy, setting forth the time at which the information reached him, the time at which he began and closed his investigation, the place or places visited by him, and a statement of the circumstances ascertained through his investigation.

101[(1-A) The statements of witnesses recorded during the course of investigation under Section 161 shall be inserted in the case diary.

(1-B) The diary referred to in sub-section (1) shall be a volume and duly paginated.]

(2) Any criminal court may send for the police diaries of a case under inquiry or trial in such Court, and may use such diaries, not as evidence in the case, but to aid it in such inquiry or trial.

(3) Neither the accused nor his agents shall be entitled to call for such diaries, nor shall he or they be entitled to see them merely because they are referred to by the Court; but, if they are used by the police officer who made them to refresh his memory, or if the Court uses them for the purpose of contradicting such police officer, the provisions of Section 161 or Section 145, as the case may be, of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), shall apply.

Corresponding Law: S. 172 of Act V of 1898.

Section 173. Report of police officer on completion of investigation

(1) Every investigation under this Chapter shall be completed without unnecessary delay.

102[(1-A) The investigation in relation to 103[an offence under Sections 376, 376-A, 376-AB, 376-B, 376-C, 376-D, 376-DA, 376-DB or 376-E of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall be completed within two months] from the date on which the information was recorded by the officer in charge of the police station.]

(2)(i) As soon as it is completed, the officer in charge of the police station shall forward to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence on a police report, a report in the form prescribed by the State Government, stating

(a) the names of the parties;

(b) the nature of the information;

(c) the names of the persons who appear to be acquainted with the circumstances of the case;

(d) whether any offence appears to have been committed and, if so, by whom;

(e) whether the accused has been arrested;

(f) whether he has been released on his bond and, if so, whether with or without sureties;

(g) whether he has been forwarded in custody under Section 170;

104[(h) whether the report of medical examination of the woman has been attached where investigation relates to an offence under 105[Sections 376, Section 376-A, Section 376-AB, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D, Section 376-DA, Section 376-DB] 106[or Section 376-E of the Indian Penal Code].]

(ii) The officer shall also communicate, in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government, the action taken by him to the person, if any, by whom the information relating to the commission of the offence was first given.

(3) Where a superior officer of police has been appointed under Section 158, the report shall, in any case in which the State Government by general or special order so directs, be submitted through that officer, and he may, pending the orders of the Magistrate, direct the officer in charge of the police station to make further investigation.

(4) Whenever it appears from a report forwarded under this section that the accused has been released on his bond, the Magistrate shall make such order for the discharge of such bond or otherwise as he thinks fit.

(5) When such report is in respect of a case to which Section 170 applies, the police officer shall forward to the Magistrate along with the report

(a) all documents or relevant extracts thereof on which the prosecution proposes to rely other than those already sent to the Magistrate during investigation;

(b) the statements recorded under Section 161 of all the persons whom the prosecution proposes to examine as its witnesses.

(6) If the police officer is of opinion that any part of any such statement is not relevant to the subject-matter of the proceedings or that its disclosure to the accused is not essential in the interests of justice and is inexpedient in the public interest, he shall indicate that part of the statement and append a note requesting the Magistrate to exclude that part from the copies to be granted to the accused and stating his reasons for making such request.

(7) Where the police officer investigating the case finds it convenient so to do, he may furnish to the accused copies of all or any of the documents referred to in sub-section (5).

(8) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to preclude further investigation in respect of an offence after a report under sub-section (2) has been forwarded to the Magistrate and, where upon such investigation, the officer in charge of the police station obtains further evidence, oral or documentary, he shall forward to the Magistrate a further report or reports regarding such evidence in the form prescribed; and the provisions of sub-sections (2) to (6) shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to such report or reports as they apply in relation to a report forwarded under sub-section (2).

Corresponding Law: S. 173 of Act V of 1898.

Section 174. Police to enquire and report on suicide, etc

(1) When the officer in charge of a police station or some other police officer specially empowered by the State Government in that behalf receives information that a person has committed suicide, or has been killed by another or by an animal or by machinery or by an accident, or has died under circumstances raising a reasonable suspicion that some other person has committed an offence, he shall immediately give intimation thereof to the nearest Executive Magistrate empowered to hold inquests, and, unless otherwise directed by any rule prescribed by the State Government, or by any general or special order of the District or Sub-Divisional Magistrate, shall proceed to the place where the body of such deceased person is, and there, in the presence of two or more respectable inhabitants of the neighbourhood, shall make an investigation, and draw up a report of the apparent cause of death, describing such wounds, fractures, bruises, and other marks of injury as may be found on the body, and stating in what manner, or by what weapon or instrument (if any), such marks appear to have been inflicted.

(2) The report shall be signed by such police officer and other persons, or by so many of them as concur therein, and shall be forthwith forwarded to the District Magistrate or the Sub-Divisional Magistrate.

107(3) [When

(i) the case involves suicide by a woman within seven years of her marriage; or

(ii) the case relates to the death of a woman within seven years of her marriage in any circumstances raising a reasonable suspicion that some other person committed an offence in relation to such woman; or

(iii) the case relates to the death of a woman within seven years of her marriage and any relative of the woman has made a request in this behalf; or

(iv) there is any doubt regarding the cause of death; or

(v) the police officer for any other reason considers it expedient so to do,

he shall,] subject to such rules as the State Government may prescribe in this behalf, forward the body, with a view to its being examined, to the nearest Civil Surgeon, or other qualified medical man appointed in this behalf by the State Government, if the state of the weather and the distance admit of its being so forwarded without risk of such putrefaction on the road as would render such examination useless.

(4) The following Magistrates are empowered to hold inquests, namely, any District Magistrate or Sub-Divisional Magistrate and any other Executive Magistrate specially empowered in this behalf by the State Government or the District Magistrate.

Corresponding Law: S. 174 of Act V of 1898.

Section 175. Power to summon persons

(1) A police officer proceeding under Section 174 may, by order in writing, summon two or more persons as aforesaid for the purpose of the said investigation, and any other person who appears to be acquainted with the facts of the case and every person so summoned shall be bound to attend and to answer truly all questions other than questions the answers to which would have a tendency to expose him to a criminal charge or to a penalty or forfeiture.

(2) If the facts do not disclose a cognizable offence to which Section 170 applies, such persons shall not be required by the police officer to attend a Magistrate's Court.

Corresponding Law: S. 175 of Act V of 1898.

Section 176. Inquiry by Magistrate into cause of death

(1) 108[ ] 109[110[ ] when the case is of the nature referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) of sub-section (3) of Section 174], the nearest Magistrate empowered to hold inquests shall, and in any other case mentioned in sub-section (1) of Section 174, any Magistrate so empowered may hold an inquiry into the cause of death either instead of, or in addition to, the investigation held by the police officer; and if he does so, he shall have all the powers in conducting it which he would have in holding an inquiry into an offence.

111[(1-A) Where,

(a) any person dies or disappears, or

(b) rape is alleged to have been committed on any woman,

while such person or woman is in the custody of the police or in any other custody authorised by the Magistrate or the Court, under this Code, in addition to the inquiry or investigation held by the police, an inquiry shall be held by the Judicial Magistrate or the Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be, within whose local jurisdiction the offences has been committed.]

(2) The Magistrate holding such an inquiry shall record the evidence taken by him in connection therewith in any manner hereinafter prescribed according to the circumstances of the case.

(3) Whenever such Magistrate considers it expedient to make an examination of the dead body of any person who has been already interred, in order to discover the cause of his death, the Magistrate may cause the body to be disinterred and examined.

(4) Where an inquiry is to be held under this section, the Magistrate shall, wherever practicable, inform the relatives of the deceased whose names and addresses are known, and shall allow them to remain present at the inquiry.

112[(5) The Judicial Magistrate or the Metropolitan Magistrate or Executive Magistrate or police officer holding an inquiry or investigation, as the case may be, under sub-section (1-A) shall, within twenty-four hours of the death of a person, forward the body with a view to its being examined to the nearest Civil Surgeon or other qualified medical person appointed in this behalf by the State Government, unless it is not possible to do so for reasons to be recorded in writing.]

Explanation. In this section, the expression relative means parents, children, brothers, sisters and spouse.

Notes on Clauses to 2005 Amendment Section 176 is being amended to provide that in the case of death or disappearance of a person, or rape of a woman while in the custody of the police, there shall be a mandatory judicial inquiry and in case of death, examination of the dead body shall be conducted within twenty-four hours of death.

Corresponding Law: S. 176 of Act V of 1898.

  1. Ins. by Act 25 of 2005, S. 16 (w.e.f. a date to be notified).

  2. Ins. by Act 13 of 2013, S. 13 (w.r.e.f. 3-2-2013).

  3. Subs. for Section 376-A, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D by Act 22 of 2018, S. 11(i) (w.r.e.f. 21-4-2018).

  4. Subs. for Section 376-A, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D by Act 22 of 2018, S. 11(ii) (w.r.e.f. 21-4-2018).

  5. Ins. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 11 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009).

  6. Subs. for under the age of fifteen years or woman by Act 13 of 2013, S. 14 (w.r.e.f. 3-2-2013).

  7. Ins. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 12 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009).

  8. Ins. by Act 13 of 2013, S. 15 (w.r.e.f. 3-2-2013).

  9. Subs. for Section 376-A, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D by Act 22 of 2018, S. 12 (w.r.e.f. 21-4-2018).

  10. Subs. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 13 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009). Prior to substitution it read as: Provided that no confession shall be recorded by a police officer on whom any power of a Magistrate has been conferred under any law for the time being in force.

  11. Ins. by Act 13 of 2013, S. 16 (w.r.e.f. 3-2-2013).

  12. Subs. for Section 376-A, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D by Act 22 of 2018, S. 13 (w.r.e.f. 21-4-2018).

  13. Ins. by Act 25 of 2005, S. 17 (w.e.f. 23-6-2006).

  14. Ss. 166-A and 166-B ins. by Act 10 of 1990, S. 2 (w.e.f. 19-2-1990).

  15. Subs. by the CrPC (Amendment) Act, 1978, S. 13. Section 14 of the Amending Act provides: Amendment of Section 167 to apply to pending investigations. The provisions of Section 167 of the principal Act, as amended by this Act, shall apply to every investigation pending immediately before the commencement of this Act, if the period of detention of the accused person, otherwise, than in the custody of the police, had not, at such commencement, exceeded sixty days .

  16. Subs. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 14 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009). Prior to substitution it read as: (b) no Magistrate shall authorise detention in any custody under this section unless the accused is produced before him;

  17. Original Expl. I renumbered as Expl. II and Expl. I added by CrPC (Amendment) Act, 1978, S. 13.

  18. Subs. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 14 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009). Prior to substitution it read as: Explanation II. If any question arises whether an accused person was produced before the Magistrate as required under paragraph (b), the production of the accused person may be proved by his signature on the order authorising detention.

  19. Ins. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 14 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009).

  20. Ins. by Act 45 of 1978, S. 13. Section 14 of the Amending Act provides: 14. Amendment of Section 167 to apply to pending investigations. The provisions of Section 167 of the principal Act, as amended by this Act, shall apply to every investigation pending immediately before the commencement of this Act, if the period of detention of the accused person, otherwise that in the custody of the police, had not, at such commencement, exceeded sixty days .

  21. Ins. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 15 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009).

  22. Ins. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 16 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009).

  23. Subs. for rape of a child may be completed within three months by Act 22 of 2018, S. 14(i) (w.r.e.f. 21-4-2018).

  24. Ins. by Act 5 of 2009, S. 16 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009).

  25. Subs. for Section 376, Section 376-A, Section 376-B, Section 376-C, Section 376-D by Act 22 of 2018, S. 14(ii) (w.r.e.f. 21-4-2018).

  26. Subs. for or 376-D of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) by Act 13 of 2013, S. 17 (w.r.e.f. 3-2-2013).

  27. Subs. by Act 46 of 1983, S. 3.

  28. The words When any person dies while in the custody of the police omitted by Act 25 of 2005, S. 18(i) (w.e.f. 23-6-2006).

  29. Ins. by Act 46 of 1983, S. 4.

  30. The word or omitted by Act 25 of 2005, S. 18(i) (w.e.f. 23-6-2006).

  31. Ins. by Act 25 of 2005, S. 18(ii) (w.e.f. 23-6-2006).

  32. Ins. by Act 25 of 2005, S. 18(iii) (w.e.f. 23-6-2006).

Edit

Guidelines of Lalita Kumari v/s Govt of UP [Constitution Bench Case]

 

More...

A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court in Lalita Kumari v. Govt. of U.P [W.P.(Crl) No; 68/2008] held that registration of First Information Report is mandatory under Section 154 of the Code of Criminal Procedure , if the information discloses commission of a cognizable offence and no preliminary inquiry is permissible in such a situation. If the information received does not disclose a cognizable offence but indicates the necessity for an inquiry, a preliminary inquiry may be conducted only to ascertain whether cognizable offence is disclosed or not. The Supreme Court issued the following Guidelines regarding the registration of FIR.

(i) Registration of FIR is mandatory under Section 154 of the Code, if the information discloses commission of a cognizable offence and no preliminary inquiry is permissible in such a situation.

(ii) If the information received does not disclose a cognizable offence but indicates the necessity for an inquiry, a preliminary inquiry may be conducted only to ascertain whether cognizable offence is disclosed or not.

(iii) If the inquiry discloses the commission of a cognizable offence, the FIR must be registered. In cases where preliminary inquiry ends in closing the complaint, a copy of the entry of such closure must be supplied to the first informant forthwith and not later than one week. It must disclose reasons in brief for closing the complaint and not proceeding further.

(iv) The police officer cannot avoid his duty of registering offence if cognizable offence is disclosed. Action must be taken against erring officers who donot register the FIR if information received by him discloses a cognizable offence.

(v) The scope of preliminary inquiry is not to verify the veracity or otherwise of the information received but only to ascertain whether the information reveals any cognizable offence.

(vi) As to what type and in which cases preliminary inquiry is to be conducted will depend on the facts and circumstances of each case. The category of cases in which preliminary inquiry may be made are as under:

(a) Matrimonial disputes/ family disputes

(b)Commercial offences

(c) Medical negligence cases

(d)Corruption cases

(e) Cases where there is abnormal delay/laches in initiating criminal prosecution, for example, over 3 months delay in reporting the matter without satisfactorily explaining the reasons for delay. The aforesaid are only illustrations and not exhaustive of all conditions which may warrant preliminary inquiry.

(vii) While ensuring and protecting the rights of the accused and the complainant, a preliminary inquiry should be made time bound and in any case it should not exceed 7 days. The fact of such delay and the causes of it must be reflected in the General Diary entry.

(viii) Since the General Diary/Station Diary/Daily Diary is the record of all information received in a police station, we direct that all information relating to cognizable offences, whether resulting in registration of FIR or leading to an inquiry, must be mandatorily and meticulously reflected in the said Diary and the decision to conduct a preliminary inquiry must also be reflected, as mentioned above.

UPHJS2018-II Edit

88. A statement under Section 164 of the Code of Criminal Procedure may be recorded by :
(a) An Executive Magistrate
(b) A Police Officer
(c) A Judicial Magistrate or a Metropolitan Magistrate
(d) All the officers named above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-I Edit

75. Statements of witnesses recorded under section 164 of Cr.P.C. are :
(a) substantive evidence
(b) corroborative evidence
(c) both substantive and corroborative evidence
(d) neither substantive nor corroborative evidence

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

62. A Magistrate may not remand the accused to police custody for-
(A) more than 24 hours
(B) more than 7 days
(C) more than 14 days
(D) more than 15 days

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

70. A non confessional statement recorded under Section 164 of Cr.RC..
(A) is a substantive piece of evidence
(B) is not a substantive piece of evidence
(C) may or may not be substantive evidence depending upon the facts and cicumstances
(D) None of the above.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

71. A joint statement of several witnesses recorded during investigation-
(A) will render these persons as incompetent witnesses
(B) will render their statement as inadmissible
(C) will neither render these persons as incompetent witnesses nor their evidence as inadmissible
(D) will render these persons as incompetent witnesses as well as their evidence as inadmissible.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2009 Edit

93. Statement under Section 161 of Cr.P.C. can be used to-
(A) corroborate the statement in court
(B) corroborate and contradict statement in court
(C) contradict the statement in court
(D) can not be utilized for any purpose

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS 2020 Edit

2. An accused in custody for murder is not entitled to what is termed as default bail/compulsive bail under the provision to section 167(2) Cr .P.C. when-

(A) Period of 90 days is expired in custody, no charges sheet has been filed against him, and he has applied for bail orally before the Court.

(B) A charge sheet has been filed against the accused after expiry of 90 days of custody after filling of bail application by the accused.

(C) A charge sheet has been filled after 90 days of custody of the accused but before the accused applies orally or in writing for enlargement on bail.

(D) A request for extension of time for investigation has been made before disposal of application of the accused in custody for enlargement on bail.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-III Edit

14 (d) Report of police officer on completion of Investigation. [10]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2018-II Edit

7 (b) Police Officer’s power to investigate cognizable case [5]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2016 Edit


5(a). Can a Magistrate stop investigation? If so, under which provision of Cr. P.C. Explain. 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2014 Edit


9. What is the legal status and its impact in a criminal trial of a statement recorded under Section 164, Cr. P.C. and how can it be utilized against the accused? 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2012 Edit


4. (a) Can a police officer refuse to register a first information report on the ground that the said police station does not have territorial jurisdiction over the place of crime ? Answer referring to relevant provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009 Edit


5. (a) What is the power of the Magistrate in regard to the police report furnished under Section 173 of Cr. P.C.? Is the Magistrate competent to disagree with the report? Illustrate with case-laws. 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XIII JURISDICTION OF THE CRIMINAL COURTS IN INQUIRIES AND TRIALS

UPHJS2012 Edit

59. An offence of theft can be tried by a court under whose jurisdiction-
(A) the theft has been committed
(B) the stolen property is found in possession of thief
(C) the stolen property is kept by the accused knowing it to be stolen
(D) Any of the above.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2009 Edit

92. Ordinarily place of trial is-
(A) where the offence has been committed
(B) where the victim resides
(C) where the accused resides
(D) where the FIR is lodged

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2007 Edit


5. Every offence shall ordinarily be enquired into and tried by a Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction it was committed. State the exception to this Rule by referring to provisions of Criminal Procedure Code and the decided cases? 15

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XIV CONDITIONS REQUISITE FOR INITIATION OF PROCEEDINGS
Edit

Chapter XIV

CONDITIONS REQUISITE FOR INITIATION OF PROCEEDINGS

Section 190. Cognizance of offences by Magistrates

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, any Magistrate of the first class, and any Magistrate of the second class specially empowered in this behalf under sub-section (2), may take cognizance of any offence

(a) upon receiving a complaint of facts which constitute such offence;

(b) upon a police report of such facts;

(c) upon information received from any person other than a police officer, or upon his own knowledge, that such offence has been committed.

(2) The Chief Judicial Magistrate may empower any Magistrate of the second class to take cognizance under sub-section (1) of such offences as are within his competence to inquire into or try.

Section 191. Transfer on application of the accused

When a Magistrate takes cognizance of an offence under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of Section 190, the accused shall, before any evidence is taken, be informed that he is entitled to have the case inquired into or tried by another Magistrate, and if the accused or any of the accused, if there be more than one, objects to further proceedings before the Magistrate taking cognizance, the case shall be transferred to such other Magistrate as may be specified by the Chief Judicial Magistrate in this behalf.

Section 192. Making over of cases to Magistrates

(1) Any Chief Judicial Magistrate may, after taking cognizance of an offence, make over the case for inquiry or trial to any competent Magistrate subordinate to him.

(2) Any Magistrate of the first class empowered in this behalf by the Chief Judicial Magistrate may, after taking cognizance of an offence, make over the case for inquiry or trial to such other competent Magistrate as the Chief Judicial Magistrate may, by general or special order, specify, and thereupon such Magistrate may hold the inquiry or trial.

Section 193. Cognizance of offences by Courts of Session

Except as otherwise expressly provided by this Code or by any other law for the time being in force, no Court of Session shall take cognizance of any offence as a Court of original juris-diction unless the case has been committed to it by a Magistrate under this Code.

Section 194. Additional and Assistant Sessions Judges to try cases made over to them

An Additional Sessions Judge or Assistant Sessions Judge shall try such cases as the Sessions Judge of the division may, by general or special order, make over to him for trial or as the High Court may, by special order, direct him to try.

Section 195. Prosecution for contempt of lawful authority of public servants, for offences against public justice and for offences relating to documents given in evidence

(1) No Court shall take cognizance

(a)(i) of any offence punishable under Sections 172 to 188 (both inclusive) of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or

(ii) of any abetment of, or attempt to commit, such offence, or

(iii) of any criminal conspiracy to commit such offence,

except on the complaint in writing of the public servant concerned or of some other public servant to whom he is administratively subordinate;

(b)(i) of any offence punishable under any of the following sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), namely, Sections 193 to 196 (both inclusive), 199, 200, 205 to 211 (both inclusive) and 228, when such offence is alleged to have been committed in, or in relation to, any proceeding in any Court, or

(ii) of any offence described in Section 463, or punishable under Section 471, Section 475 or Section 476, of the said Code, when such offence is alleged to have been committed in respect of a document produced or given in evidence in a proceeding in any Court, or

(iii) of any criminal conspiracy to commit, or attempt to commit, or the abetment of, any offence specified in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii),

except on the complaint in writing of that Court 115[or by such officer of the Court as that Court may authorise in writing in this behalf], or of some other Court to which that Court is subordinate.

(2) Where a complaint has been made by a public servant under clause (a) of sub-section (1) any authority to which he is administratively subordinate may order the withdrawal of the complaint and send a copy of such order to the Court; and upon its receipt by the Court, no further proceedings shall be taken on the complaint:

Provided that no such withdrawal shall be ordered if the trial in the Court of first instance has been concluded.

(3) In clause (b) of sub-section (1), the term Court means a Civil, Revenue or Criminal Court, and includes a tribunal constituted by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act, if declared by that Act to be a Court for the purposes of this section.

(4) For the purposes of clause (b) of sub-section (1), a Court shall be deemed to be subordinate to the Court to which appeals ordinarily lie from the appealable decrees or sentences of such former Court, or in the case of a Civil Court from whose decrees no appeal ordinarily lies, to the principal Court having ordinary original civil jurisdiction within whose local jurisdiction such Civil Court is situate:

Provided that

(a) where appeals lie to more than one Court, the Appellate Court of inferior jurisdiction shall be the Court to which such Court shall be deemed to be subordinate;

(b) where appeals lie to a Civil and also to a Revenue Court, such Court shall be deemed to be subordinate to the Civil or Revenue Court according to the nature of the case or proceeding in connection with which the offence is alleged to have been committed.

116[195-A. Procedure for witnesses in case of threatening, etc. A witness or any other person may file a complaint in relation to an offence under Section 195-A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).]

Section 196. Prosecution for offences against the State and for criminal conspiracy to commit such offence

(1) No Court shall take cognizance of

(a) any offence punishable under Chapter VI or under Section 153-A, 117[Section 295-A or sub-section (1) of Section 505] of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (45 of 1860), or

(b) a criminal conspiracy to commit such offence, or

(c) any such abetment, as is described in Section 108-A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860),

except with the previous sanction of the Central Government or of the State Government.

Corresponding Law: S. 196 of Act V of 1898.

118[(1-A) No Court shall take cognizance of

(a) any offence punishable under Section 153-B or sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) of Section 505 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (45 of 1860), or

(b) a criminal conspiracy to commit such offence,

except with the previous sanction of the Central Government or of the State Government or of the District Magistrate.]

(2) No court shall take cognizance of the offence of any criminal conspiracy punishable under Section 120-B of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), other than a criminal conspiracy to commit 119[an offence] punishable with death, imprisonment for life or rigorous imprisonment for a term of two years or upwards, unless the State Government or the District Magistrate has consented in writing to the initiation of the proceedings:

Provided that where the criminal conspiracy is one to which the provisions of Section 195 apply, no such consent shall be necessary.

Corresponding Law: S. 196-A of Act V of 1898.

(3) The Central Government or the State Government may, before according sanction 120[under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1-A) and the District Magistrate may, before according sanction under sub-section (1-A)] and the State Government or the District Magistrate may, before giving consent under sub-section (2), order a preliminary investigation by a police officer not being below the rank of Inspector, in which case such police officer shall have the powers referred to in sub-section (3) of Section 155.

Corresponding Law: S. 196-B of Act V of 1898.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Manipur. In its application to the State of Manipur, in S. 196, after sub-section (3), the following sub-section shall be added, namely

(4) No specified Executive Magistrate shall take cognizance of any offence except with the previous sanction of the State Government or such other authority or officer as it may, by order published in the Official Gazette, specify. Mani. Act 3 of 1985, S. 4(2), Sch. (23-3-1985 up to a period of three years).

Section 197. Prosecution of Judges and public servants

(1) When any person who is or was a Judge or Magistrate or a public servant not removable from his office save by or with the sanction of the Government is accused of any offence alleged to have been committed by him while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty, no Court shall take cognizance of such offence except with the previous sanction 121[save as otherwise provided in the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013]

(a) in the case of a person who is employed or, as the case may be, was at the time of commission of the alleged offence employed, in connection with the affairs of the Union, of the Central Government;

(b) in the case of a person who is employed or, as the case may be, was at the time of commission of the alleged offence employed, in connection with the affairs of a State, of the State Government:

122[Provided that where the alleged offence was committed by a person referred to in clause (b) during the period while a Proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356 of the Constitution was in force in a State, clause (b) will apply as if for the expression State Government occurring therein, the expression Central Government were substituted.]

123[Explanation. For the removal of doubts it is hereby declared that no sanction shall be required in case of a public servant accused of any offence alleged to have been committed under Section 166-A, Section 166-B, Section 354, Section 354-A, Section 354-B, Section 354-C, Section 354-D, Section 370, Section 375, Section 376, 124[Section 376-A, Section 376-AB, Section 376-C, Section 376-D, Section 376-DA, Section 376-DB] or Section 509 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).]

(2) No Court shall take cognizance of any offence alleged to have been committed by any member of the Armed Forces of the Union while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty, except with the previous sanction of the Central Government.

(3) The State Government may, by notification, direct that the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply to such class or category of the members of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order as may be specified therein, wherever they may be serving, and thereupon the provisions of that sub-section will apply as if for the expression Central Government occurring therein, the expression State Government were substituted.

125[(3-A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), no court shall take cognizance of any offence, alleged to have been committed by any member of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order in a State while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty during the period while a Proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356 of the Constitution was in force therein, except with the previous sanction of the Central Government.

(3-B) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Code or any other law, it is hereby declared that any sanction accorded by the State Government or any cognizance taken by a court upon such sanction, during the period commencing on the 20th day of August, 1991 and ending with the date immediately preceding the date on which the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1991, receives the assent of the President, with respect to an offence alleged to have been committed during the period while a Proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356 of the Constitution was in force in the State, shall be invalid and it shall be competent for the Central Government in such matter to accord sanction and for the court to take cognizance thereon.]

(4) The Central Government or the State Government, as the case may be, may determine the person by whom, the manner in which, and the offence or offences for which, the prosecution of such Judge, Magistrate or public servant is to be conducted, and may specify the Court before which the trial is to be held.

Section 198. Prosecution for offences against marriage

(1) No Court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under Chapter XX of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) except upon a complaint made by some person aggrieved by the offence:

Provided that

(a) where such person is under the age of eighteen years, or is an idiot or a lunatic, or is from sickness or infirmity unable to make a complaint, or is a woman who, according to the local customs and manners, ought not to be compelled to appear in public, some other person may, with the leave of the Court, make a complaint on his or her behalf;

(b) where such person is the husband and he is serving in any of the Armed Forces of the Union under conditions which are certified by his Commanding Officer as precluding him from obtaining leave of absence to enable him to make a complaint in person, some other person authorised by the husband in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (4) may make a complaint on his behalf;

(c) where the person aggrieved by an offence punishable under 126[Section 494 or Section 495] of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) is the wife, complaint may be made on her behalf by her father, mother, brother, sister, son or daughter or by her father's or mother's brother or sister 127[, or, with the leave of the Court, by any other person related to her by blood, marriage or adoption].

Corresponding Law: S. 198 and S. 199 of Act V of 1898.

128[(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), no person other than the husband of the woman shall be deemed to be aggrieved by any offence punishable under Section 498 of the said Code:

Provided that in the absence of the husband, some person who had care of the woman on his behalf at the time when such offence was committed may, with the leave of the Court, make a complaint on his behalf.]

Corresponding Law: S. 199 of Act V of 1898.

(3) When in any case falling under clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (1), the complaint is sought to be made on behalf of a person under the age of eighteen years or of a lunatic by a person who has not been appointed or declared by a competent authority to be the guardian of the person of the minor or lunatic, and the Court is satisfied that there is a guardian so appointed or declared, the Court shall, before granting the application for leave, cause notice to be given to such guardian and give him a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(4) The authorisation referred to in clause (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1), shall be in writing, shall be signed or otherwise attested by the husband, shall contain a statement to the effect that he has been informed of the allegations upon which the complaint is to be founded, shall be countersigned by his Commanding Officer, and shall be accompanied by a certificate signed by that Officer to the effect that leave of absence for the purpose of making a complaint in person cannot for the time being be granted to the husband.

(5) Any document purporting to be such an authorisation and complying with the provisions of sub-section (4), and any document purporting to be a certificate required by that sub-section shall, unless the contrary is proved, be presumed to be genuine and shall be received in evidence.

(6) No Court shall take cognizance of an offence under Section 376 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), where such offence consists of sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife being under 129[eighteen years of age], if more than one year has elapsed from the date of the commission of the offence.

Corresponding Law: S. 198-A of Act V of 1898.

(7) The provisions of this section apply to the abetment of, or attempt to commit, an offence as they apply to the offence.

130[198-A. Prosecution of offences under Section 498-A of the Indian Penal Code. No Court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under Section 498-A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) except upon a police report of facts which constitute such offence or upon a complaint made by the person aggrieved by the offence or by her father, mother, brother, sister or by her father's or mother's brother or sister or, with the leave of the Court, by any other person related to her by blood, marriage or adoption.]

131[198-B. Cognizance of offence. No court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under Section 376-B of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) where the persons are in a marital relationship, except upon prima facie satisfaction of the facts which constitute the offence upon a complaint having been filed or made by the wife against the husband.]

Section 199. Prosecution for defamation

(1) No Court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under Chapter XXI of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) except upon a complaint made by some person aggrieved by the offence:

Provided that where such person is under the age of eighteen years, or is an idiot or a lunatic, or is from sickness or infirmity unable to make a complaint, or is a woman who, according to the local customs and manners, ought not to be compelled to appear in public, some other person may, with the leave of the Court, make a complaint on his or her behalf.

Corresponding Law: S. 199 of Act V of 1898.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, when any offence falling under Chapter XXI of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) is alleged to have been committed against a person who, at the time of such commission, is the President of India, the Vice-President of India, the Governor of a State, the Administrator of a Union Territory or a Minister of the Union or of a State or of a Union Territory, or any other public servant employed in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State in respect of his conduct in the discharge of his public functions a Court of Session may take cognizance of such offence, without the case being committed to it, upon a complaint in writing made by the Public Prosecutor.

(3) Every complaint referred to in sub-section (2) shall set forth the facts which constitute the offence alleged, the nature of such offence and such other particulars as are reasonably sufficient to give notice to the accused of the offence alleged to have been committed by him.

(4) No complaint under sub-section (2) shall be made by the Public Prosecutor except with the previous sanction

(a) of the State Government, in the case of a person who is or has been the Governor of that State or a Minister of that Government;

(b) of the State Government, in the case of any other public servant employed in connection with the affairs of the State;

(c) of the Central Government, in any other case.

(5) No Court of Session shall take cognizance of an offence under sub-section (2) unless the complaint is made within six months from the date on which the offence is alleged to have been committed.

Corresponding Law: S. 198-B of Act V of 1898.

(6) Nothing in this section shall affect the right of the person against whom the offence is alleged to have been committed, to make a complaint in respect of that offence before a Magistrate having jurisdiction or the power of such Magistrate to take cognizance of the offence upon such complaint.

Edit

Whether the Magistrate can order further investigation after taking cognizance of the offence ?

More...

Vinubhai Hari bhai malviya case

UPHJS2018-II Edit

7 (a) Cognizance of offence by magistrate [5]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2018-II Edit

8 (a) The provisions relating to the prosecution of Judges and public servants as provided under the CrPC 1973 [5]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2016 Edit


2. (a). How and when a criminal court can take cognizance of an offence? Explain the law on the topic with reference to the exceptions provided in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
CG HJS 2018 Edit

  1. (A) Describe the provision contained in the code of criminal procedure with regard to prosecution for offences against the state and for criminal conspiracy to commit such offences. [ 5 marks ]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XV COMPLAINTS TO MAGISTRATES
Edit

Chapter XV

COMPLAINTS TO MAGISTRATES

Section 200. Examination of complainant

A Magistrate taking cognizance of an offence on complaint shall examine upon oath the complainant and the witnesses present, if any, and the substance of such examination shall be reduced to writing and shall be signed by the complainant and the witnesses, and also by the Magistrate:

Provided that, when the complaint is made in writing, the Magistrate need not examine the complainant and the witnesses

(a) if a public servant acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duties or a court has made the complaint; or

(b) if the Magistrate makes over the case for inquiry or trial to another Magistrate under Section 192:

Provided further that if the Magistrate makes over the case to another Magistrate under Section 192 after examining the complainant and the witnesses, the latter Magistrate need not re-examine them.

Corresponding Law: S. 200 of Act V of 1898.

Section 201. Procedure by Magistrate not competent to take cognizance of the case

If the complaint is made to a Magistrate who is not competent to take cognizance of the offence, he shall,

(a) if the complaint is in writing, return it for presentation to the proper Court with an endorsement to that effect;

(b) if the complaint is not in writing, direct the complainant to the proper Court.

Corresponding Law: S. 201 of Act V of 1898.

Section 202. Postponement of issue of process

(1) Any Magistrate, on receipt of a complaint of an offence of which he is authorized to take cognizance or which has been made over to him under Section 192, may, if he thinks fit, 132[and shall, in a case where the accused is residing at a place beyond the area in which he exercises his jurisdiction,] postpone the issue of process against the accused, and either inquire into the case himself or direct an investigation to be made by a police officer or by such other person as he thinks fit, for the purpose of deciding whether or not there is sufficient ground for proceeding:

Provided that no such direction for investigation shall be made,

(a) where it appears to the Magistrate that the offence complained of is triable exclusively by the Court of Session; or

(b) where the complaint has not been made by a Court, unless the complainant and the witnesses present (if any) have been examined on oath under Section 200.

(2) In an inquiry under sub-section (1), the Magistrate may, if he thinks fit, take evidence of witnesses on oath:

Provided that if it appears to the Magistrate that the offence complained of is triable exclusively by the Court of Session, he shall call upon the complainant to produce all his witnesses and examine them on oath.

(3) If an investigation under sub-section (1) is made by a person not being a police officer, he shall have for that investigation all the powers conferred by this Code on an officer in charge of a police station except the power to arrest without warrant.

Notes on Clauses to 2005 Amendment False complaints are filed against persons residing at far off places simply to harass them. In order to see that innocent persons are not harassed by unscrupulous persons, this clause seeks to amend sub-section (1) of Section 202 to make it obligatory upon the Magistrate that before summoning the accused residing beyond his jurisdiction he shall enquire into the case himself or direct investigation to be made by a police officer or by such other person as he thinks fit, for finding out whether or not there was sufficient ground for proceeding against the accused.

Corresponding Law: S. 202 of Act V of 1898.

Section 203. Dismissal of complaint

If, after considering the statements on oath (if any) of the complainant and of the witnesses and the result of the inquiry or investigation (if any) under Section 202, the Magistrate is of opinion that there is no sufficient ground for proceeding, he shall dismiss the complaint, and in every such case he shall briefly record his reasons for so doing.

Edit

कब कोर्ट १५६(३) CRPC के प्रार्थना पत्र को परिवाद के रूप में दर्ज करेगी ? इसके सम्बन्ध में माननीय इलाहाबाद उच्च न्यायालय की विधि व्यवस्था को स्पष्ट करें 

 

More...

1- नाथु लाल गंगवार प्रति उ0प्र0 राज्य, 2008 (61) ए0सी0सी0 792, इलाहाबाद।

2- सुखवासी प्रति उ0प्र0 राज्य, 2007 (59) ए0सी0सी0 739, इलाहाबाद खण्डपीठ।

3- रामबाबू गुप्ता प्रति उ0प्र0 राज्य, 2001(43) ए0सी0सी0 50, इलाहाबाद पूर्णपीठ।

UPHJS2012 Edit


5. (a) Distinguish between, dismissal of a complaint, discharge and acquittal of an accused. What are remedies available in each of these cases to the complainant ? 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2012 Edit


5. (b) A company lodged first information report for offences under Sections 408/420, I.P.C. against ‘X’, its former Divisional Manager. After completing the investigation, report under Section 173, Cr. P.C. was sent to the Magistrate stating that the case was of civil nature. The Company lodged a protest petition with the Magistrate, and sought permission to prove the commission of offences by ‘X’. The Magistrate, after perusing the investigation records, came to the conclusion that a prima facie case under Section 408/420, I.P.C. was made out against ‘X’ and consequently issued process against him under Section 204 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The legality of this order is challenged by ‘X’ on the ground that the Magistrate had no power to issue process against him without first complying with the provisions of Sections 200 and 202 of the Criminal Procedure Code. Decide the objection. , 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XVI COMMENCEMENT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE MAGISTRATES
Edit

Chapter XVI

COMMENCEMENT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE MAGISTRATES

Section 204. Issue of process

(1) If in the opinion of a Magistrate taking cognizance of an offence there is sufficient ground for proceeding, and the case appears to be

(a) a summons-case, he shall issue his summons for the attendance of the accused, or

(b) a warrant-case, he may issue a warrant, or, if he thinks fit, a summons, for causing the accused to be brought or to appear at a certain time before such Magistrate or (if he has no jurisdiction himself) some other Magistrate having jurisdiction.

(2) No summons or warrant shall be issued against the accused under sub-section (1) until a list of the prosecution witnesses has been filed.

(3) In a proceeding instituted upon a complaint made in writing, every summons or warrant issued under sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by a copy of such complaint.

(4) When by any law for the time being in force any process-fees or other fees are payable, no process shall be issued until the fees are paid and, if such fees are not paid within a reasonable time, the Magistrate may dismiss the complaint.

(5) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect the provisions of Section 87.

Corresponding Law: S. 204 of Act V of 1898.

Section 205. Magistrate may dispense with personal attendance of accused

(1) Whenever a Magistrate issues a summons, he may, if he sees reason so to do, dispense with the personal attendance of the accused and permit him to appear by his pleader.

(2) But the Magistrate inquiring into or trying the case may, in his discretion, at any stage of the proceedings, direct the personal attendance of the accused, and, if necessary, enforce such attendance in the manner hereinbefore provided.

Corresponding Law: S. 205 of Act V of 1898.

Section 206. Special summons in case of petty offence

(1) If, in the opinion of a Magistrate taking cognizance of a petty offence, the case may be summarily disposed of under Section 260 133[or Section 261], the Magistrate shall, except where he is, for reasons to be recorded in writing of a contrary opinion, issue summons to the accused requiring him either to appear in person or by pleader before the Magistrate on a specified date, or if he desires to plead guilty to the charge without appearing before the Magistrate, to transmit before the specified date, by post or by messenger to the Magistrate, the said plea in writing and the amount of fine specified in the summons or if he desires to appear by pleader and to plead guilty to the charge through such pleader, to authorize, in writing, the pleader to plead guilty to the charge on his behalf and to pay the fine through such pleader:

Provided that the amount of the fine specified in such summons shall not exceed 134[one thousand rupees].

(2) For the purposes of this section, petty offence means any offence punishable only with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees, but does not include any offence so punishable under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1939 (4 of 1939), or under any other law which provides for convicting the accused person in his absence on a plea of guilty.

135[(3) The State Government may, by notification, specially empower any Magistrate to exercise the powers conferred by sub-section (1) in relation to any offence which is compoundable under Section 320 or any offence punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months, or with fine, or with both where the Magistrate is of opinion that, having regard to the facts and circumstances of the case, the imposition of fine only would meet the ends of justice.]

Notes on Clauses to 2005 Amendment The provisions of Section 206 are meant to enable a quick disposal of petty cases and to reduce congestion in the Court of Magistrates. Since the value of the money has gone down considerably, this clause seeks to amend sub-section (1) of that section to raise the limit of fine that can be specified in the summons from one hundred rupees to one thousand rupees.

Section 207. Supply to the accused of copy of police report and other documents

In any case where the proceeding has been instituted on a police report, the Magistrate shall without delay furnish to the accused, free of cost, a copy of each of the following:

(i) the police report;

(ii) the first information report recorded under Section 154;

(iii) the statements recorded under sub-section (3) of Section 161 of all persons whom the prosecution proposes to examine as its witnesses, excluding therefrom any part in regard to which a request for such exclusion has been made by the police officer under sub-section (6) of Section 173;

(iv) the confessions and statements, if any, recorded under Section 164;

(v) any other document or relevant extract thereof forwarded to the Magistrate with the police report under sub-section (5) of Section 173:

Provided that the Magistrate may, after perusing any such part of a statement as is referred to in clause (iii) and considering the reasons given by the police officer for the request, direct that a copy of that part of the statement or of such portion thereof as the Magistrate thinks proper, shall be furnished to the accused:

Provided further that if the Magistrate is satisfied that any document referred to in clause (v) is voluminous, he shall, instead of furnishing the accused with a copy thereof, direct that he will only be allowed to inspect it either personally or through pleader in Court.

Section 208. Supply of copies of statements and documents to accused in other cases triable by Court of Session

Where, in a case instituted otherwise than on a police report, it appears to the Magistrate issuing process under Section 204 that the offence is triable exclusively by the Court of Session, the Magistrate shall without delay furnish to the accused, free of cost, a copy of each of the following:

(i) the statements recorded under Section 200 or Section 202, of all persons examined by the Magistrate;

(ii) the statements and confessions, if any, recorded under Section 161 or Section 164;

(iii) any documents produced before the Magistrate on which the prosecution proposes to rely:

Provided that if the Magistrate is satisfied that any such document is voluminous, he shall, instead of furnishing the accused with a copy thereof, direct that he will only be allowed to inspect it either personally or through pleader in Court.

Section 209. Commitment of case to Court of Session when offence is triable exclusively by it

When in a case instituted on a police report or otherwise, the accused appears or is brought before the Magistrate and it appears to the Magistrate that the offence is triable exclusively by the Court of Session, he shall

136[(a) commit, after complying with the provisions of Section 207 or Section 208, as the case may be, the case to the Court of Session, and subject to the provisions of this Code relating to bail, remand the accused to custody until such commitment has been made];

(b) subject to the provisions of this Code relating to bail, remand the accused to custody during, and until the conclusion of, the trial;

(c) send to that Court the record of the case and the documents and articles, if any, which are to be produced in evidence;

(d) notify the Public Prosecutor of the commitment of the case to the Court of Session.

Uttar Pradesh. In Section 209 for clauses (a) and (b), the following clauses shall be substituted and be deemed always to have been substituted, namely:

(a) as soon as may be after complying with the provisions of Section 207, commit the case to the Court of Session;

(b) subject to the provisions of this Code relating to bail, remand the accused to custody until commitment of the case under clause (a) and thereafter during, and until the conclusion of trial; . U.P. Act 16 of 1976, S. 6.

Section 210. Procedure to be followed when there is a complaint case and police investigation in respect of the same offence

(1) When in a case instituted otherwise than on a police report (hereinafter referred to as a complaint case), it is made to appear to the Magistrate, during the course of the inquiry or trial held by him, that an investigation by the police is in progress in relation to the offence which is the subject-matter of the inquiry or trial held by him, the Magistrate shall stay the proceedings of such inquiry or trial and call for a report on the matter from the police officer conducting the investigation.

(2) If a report is made by the investigating police officer under Section 173 and on such report cognizance of any offence is taken by the Magistrate against any person who is an accused in the complaint case, the Magistrate shall inquire into or try together the complaint case and the case arising out of the police report as if both the cases were instituted on a police report.

(3) If the police report does not relate to any accused in the complaint case or if the Magistrate does not take cognizance of any offence on the police report, he shall proceed with the inquiry or trial, which was stayed by him, in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

UPHJS2012 Edit

74. In case of merger of the complaint with the police report, the procedure to be followed for the trial-
(A) shall be of the complaint case
(B) shall be of the case instituted on the police report
(C) shall be of both as per convenience during the trial
(D) shall be the one as directed by the Magistrate.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2009 Edit

94. Before being summoned, the accused has got a right to-
(A) participate in the proceeding
(B) no right to participate in the proceeding
(C) has no right at all
(D) can watch the proceedings but can not participate

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-II Edit

7 (d) Commitment of case to Court of Sessions when offence is triable exclusively by it. [5]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


3. (a) What are the requirements for committing a case to the Court of Sessions?
(i) in a case of charge-sheet.
(ii) in a case instituted on a complaint.
Refer to relevant sections. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XVII THE CHARGE

Edit

Dr. Nallapareddy Sridhar Reddy Vs. State of Andhra Pradesh and others (2020) 12 SCC 467, and referring to the earlier precedents in P. Kartikalakshmi Vs. Ganesh and another (2017) 3 SCC 347 , Anant Prakash Sinha @ Anant Sinha Vs. State of Haryana and another (2016) 6 SCC 105 , C.B.I. Vs. Karimullah Osan Khan (2014) 11 SCC 538 and Jasvinder Saini and others vs. State (Government of NCT of Delhi) (2013) 7 SCC 256 on the point, the principles with regard to the same have been summarized as follows :­

“21. From the above line of precedents, it is clear that Section 216 provides the court an exclusive and wideranging power to change or alter any charge. The use of the words "at any time before judgment is pronounced" in Sub­section (1) empowers the court to exercise its powers of altering or adding charges even after the completion of evidence, arguments and reserving of the judgment. The alteration or addition of a charge may be done if in the opinion of the court there was an omission in the framing of charge or if upon prima facie examination of the material brought on record, it leads the court to form a presumptive opinion as to the existence of the factual ingredients constituting the alleged offence. The test to be adopted by the court while deciding upon an addition or alteration of a charge is that the material brought on record needs to have a direct link or nexus with the ingredients of the alleged offence. Addition of a charge merely commences the trial for the additional charges, whereupon, based on the evidence, it is to be determined whether the Accused may be convicted for the additional charges. The court must exercise its powers Under Section 216 judiciously and ensure that no prejudice is caused to the Accused and that he is allowed to have a fair trial. The only constraint on the court's power is the prejudice likely to be caused to the Accused by the addition or alteration of charges. Sub­section (4) accordingly prescribes the approach to be adopted by the courts where prejudice may be caused. ”

More...

Edit

 Rajbir v. State of Haryana 

More...

Hon. Supreme Court directed that all the trial courts in India to ordinarily add Section 302 to the charge on Section 304­B IPC so that death sentences could be imposed in heinous and barbaric crimes against women.

UPHJS2018-III Edit

14 (c) Contents of charge under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 [10]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2018-II Edit

  1. Discuss the framing of a charge with the relevant provisions under the Criminal Procedure Code and frame a possible charge in a case where an accused is charged with the offence of murder and also having destroyed evidence in that regard. [10]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2016 Edit

3(b). Please go through the following facts and answer :

Daughter of one accused was married to deceased on 27-5-2007. On 27-05-2007 bride in critical condition due to poisoning was taken to hospital.
On the following day on his way to hospital husband received communication that she had died and before her death she made a statement that the husband had administered her poison. A case under Section 498-A, 307, I.P.C. was registered against the deceased. The husband coming to know that his wife had died also attempted to commit suicide. After few days he was discharged from the hospital at the instance of the accused persons against the medical advise. He was taken to the house of one of the accused (father of the bride). On the next following day dead body of the husband was found on a railway track at the distance of 30 km. from the house of the accused (father of the bride). The dead body had crush wounds. It was cut into two pieces. A criminal case was registered against the accused persons. After investigation they were charge sheeted under Section 306, 365 r/w 34, I.P.C. They were charged under these sections, prosecution witnesses were examined. Thereafter, on the application of the prosecution moved under Section 216 Cr. P.C. Charge under Section 302 r/w 34, I.P.C. was framed as an alternative charge. Alteration of charge was objected on behalf of accused persons on the ground that 26 witnesses had already been examined and only one witness remained to be examined.

After conclusion of the trial accused persons were convicted and sentenced under Sections 302 r/w 34 and 364 r/w 34,1.P.C.

In the appeal on behalf of accused-appellants it was GN that (a) judgment of conviction, so far as it relates to Section 302, I.P.C., is vitiated on the ground that procedure under Sections 216 and 217, Cr. P.C. has not been followed and (b) conviction under Section 364, I.P.C. was challenged on the ground of absence of specific charge.

Please record your opinion on (a) and (b) in the light of provisions contained in Cr. P.C. In support of the reasons for your opinion also refer to the case law. 20

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2014 Edit


7. Discuss the framing of a charge with the relevant provisions under the Criminal Procedure Code and frame a possible charge in a case where an accused is charged with the offence of murder and also having destroyed the evidence in that regard.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


6. (a) What is a ‘charge’? What are the essential ingredients of a charge? Discuss the effect of errors in a charge. 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XVIII TRIAL BEFORE A COURT OF SESSION

BIHAR HJS 2016 Edit

33. Which of the following Sections of the Code of Criminal Procedure deals with discharge of an accused by a court of session?

(a) Section 239

(b) Section 227

(c) Section 245

(d) Section 390

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

BIHAR HJS 2016 Edit

34. Under which of the following provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 can the accused file written statements in support of his defence

(a) Section 230(2)

(b) Section 231(2)

(c) Section232(2)

(d) Section 233(2)

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER XIX TRIAL OF WARRANT CASES BY MAGISTRATES

UPHJS2009 Edit

96. Warrant case means a case-
(A) in which a police officer can not arrest without warrant
(B) in which the court, in the first instance, shall issue a warrant of arrest against the accused
(C) relating to an offence punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years
(D) relating to an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term exceeding two years

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER XX TRIAL OF SUMMONS CASES BY MAGISTRATES

UPHJS2012 Edit

61. A Magistrate convicts an accused of theft for one year imprisonment and one thousand fine. Maximum punishment for which accused can be sentenced to imprisonment in default of payment of fine shall be-
(A) 1 year
(B) 9 months
(C) 3 months
(D) 6 months

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER XXI SUMMARY TRIALS

UPHJS2012 Edit

56. In a summary trial maximum punishment of imprisonment can be-
(A) 3 months
(B) 6 months
(C) 1 year
(D) 2 years.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER XXIA PLEA BARGAINING

UPHJS2018-III Edit

28. The judgment delivered by a Court in cases of plea bargaining is:
A. Final
B. Appealable and appeal lies to the High Court
C. Final and no appeal except SLP under Article 136 and writ petition under Article 226 and 227
D. Appeal lies directly to the Supreme Court

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-III Edit

59. The offence affecting the socio-economic condition of the country, to which plea bargaining is not applicable, shall be notified by:
A. The State Government
B. The Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes Commission
C. The Human Rights Commission
D. The Central Government

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-II Edit

85. The offence affecting the socio-economic condition of the country, to which plea bargaining is not applicable, shall be notified by :
(a) The State Government
(b) The Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes Commission
(c) The Human Rights Commission
(d) The Central Government

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-I Edit

18. The offence affecting the socio-economic condition of the country, to which a bargaining is not applicable, shall be notified by :
(a) The State Government
(b) The Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes Commission
(c) The Human Rights Commission
(d) The Central Government

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2016 Edit

81. The judgment delivered by a Court in cases of plea bargaining is :
(a) final
(b) appealable and appeal lies to the High Court
(c) final and no appeal except SLP under Article 136 and writ peition under Article 226 and 227 lies.
(d) appeal lies direedy to the Supreme Court.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2009 Edit


7. (a) What is Plea Bargaining? What are essential requirements for its acceptance?

One Madan Gopal lodges a complaint that his wife Ganga Devi had been defamed by the imputation of unchastity to her. Can Ganga Devi lawfully compound the offence without the consent or against the wishes of Madan Gopal? 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXII ATTENDANCE OF PERSONS CONFINED OR DETAINED IN PRISONS

---CHAPTER XXIII EVIDENCE IN INQUIRIES AND TRIALS
Edit

CHAPTER XXIII Evidence In Inquiries And Trials

A. Mode or taking and recording evidence

272. Language of Courts.

The State Government may determine what shall be, for purposes of this Code, the language of each Court within the State other than the High Court.

273. Evidence to be taken in presence of accused.

Except as otherwise expressly provided, all evidence taken in the course of the trial or other proceeding shall be taken in the presence of the accused, or, when his personal attendance is dispensed with, in the presence of his pleader. [Provided that where the evidence of a woman below the age of eighteen years who is alleged to have been subjected to rape or any other sexual offence, is to be recorded, the court may take appropriate measures to ensure that such woman is not confronted by the accused while at the same time ensuring the right of cross-examination of the accused.] Explanation. - In this Section, "accused" includes a person in relation to whom any proceeding under Chapter VIII has been commenced under this Code.

274. Record in summons-case and inquiries.

(1) In all summons-cases tried before a Magistrate, in all inquiries under Sections 145 to 148 (both inclusive), and in all proceedings under Section 446 otherwise than in the course of a trial, the Magistrate shall, as the examination of each witness proceeds, make a memorandum of the substance of his evidence in the language of the Court : Provided that if the Magistrate is unable to make such memorandum himself, he shall, after recording the reason of his inability, cause such memorandum to be made in writing or from his dictation in open Court. (2) Such memorandum shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.

275. Record in warrant-cases.

(1) In all warrant-cases tried before a Magistrate, the evidence of each witness shall, as his examination proceeds, be taken down in writing either by the Magistrate himself or by his dictation in open court or, where he is unable to do so owing to a physical or other incapacity, under his direction and superintendence, by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf. [Provided that evidence of a witness under this sub-Section may also be recorded by audio-video electronic means in the presence of the advocate of the person accused of the offence.] (2) Where the Magistrate causes the evidence to be taken down, he shall record a certificate that the evidence could not be taken down by himself for the reasons referred to in sub-Section (1). (3) Such evidence shall ordinarily be taken down in the form of a narrative; but the Magistrate may, in his discretion take down, or cause to be taken down, any part of such evidence in the form of question and answer. (4) The evidence so taken down shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.

276. Record in trial before Court of Session.

(1) In all trials before a Court of Session, the evidence of each witness shall, as his examination proceeds, be taken down in writing either by the presiding Judge himself or by his dictation in open Court or, under his direction and superintendence, by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf. [(2) Such evidence shall ordinarily be taken down in the form of a narrative, but the presiding Judge may, in his discretion, take down, or cause to be taken down, any part of such evidence in the form of question and answer.] (3) The evidence so taken down shall be signed by the presiding Judge and shall form part of the record.

277. Language of record of evidence.

In every case where evidence is taken down under Section 275 or Section 276, - (a) if the witness gives evidence in the language of the Court, it shall be taken down in that language;

(b) if he gives evidence in any other language, it may, if practicable, be taken down in that language, and if it is not practicable to do so, a true translation of the evidence in the language of the Court shall be prepared as the examination of the witness proceeds, signed by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, and shall form part of the record;

(c) where under clause (b) evidence is taken down in a language other than the language of the Court, a true translation thereof in the language of the Court, shall be prepared as soon as practicable, signed by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, and shall form part of the record :

Provided that when under clause (b) evidence is taken down in English and a translation thereof in the language of the Court is not required by any of the parties, the Court may dispense with such translation.

278. Procedure in regard to such evidence when completed.

(1) As the evidence of each witness taken under Section 275 or Section 276 is completed, it shall be read over to him in the presence of the accused, if in attendance, or of his pleader, if he appears by pleader, and shall, if necessary, be corrected. (2) If the witness denies the correctness of any part of the evidence when the same is read over to him, the Magistrate or presiding Judge may, instead of correcting the evidence, make a memorandum thereon of the objection made to it by the witness and shall add such remarks as he thinks necessary. (3) If the record of the evidence is in a language different from that in which it has been given and the witness does not understand that language, the record shall be interpreted to him in the language in which it was given, or in a language which he understands.

279. Interpretation of evidence to accused or his pleader.

(1) Whenever any evidence is given in a language not understood by the accused, and he is present in Court in person, it shall be interpreted to him in open Court in a language understood by him. (2) If he appears by pleader and the evidence is given in a language other than the language of the Court, and not understood by the pleader, it shall be interpreted to such pleader in that language. (3) When documents are put for the purpose of formal proof, it shall be in the discretion of the Court to interpret as much thereof as appears necessary.

280. Remarks respecting demeanour of witness.

When a presiding Judge or Magistrate has recorded the evidence of a witness, he shall also record such remarks (if any) as he thinks material respecting the demeanour of such witness whilst under examination.

281. Record of examination of accused.

Whenever the accused is examined by a Metropolitan Magistrate, the Magistrate shall make a memorandum of the substance of the examination of the accused in the language of the Court, and such memorandum shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record. (2) Whenever the accused is examined by any Magistrate other than a Metropolitan Magistrate, or by a Court of Session, the whole of such examination, including every question put to him and every answer given by him, shall be recorded in full by the presiding Judge or Magistrate himself or where he is unable to do so owing to a physical or other incapacity, under his direction and superintendence by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf. (3) The record shall, if practicable, be in the language in which the accused is examined or, if that is not practicable, in the language of the Court. (4) The record shall be shown or read to the accused, or, if he does not understand the language in which it is written, shall be interpreted to him in a language which he understands, and he shall be at liberty to explain or add to his answers. (5) It shall thereafter be signed by the accused, and by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, who shall certify under his own hand that the examination was taken in his presence and hearing and that the record contains a full and true account of the statement made by the accused. (6) Nothing in this Section shall be deemed to apply to the examination of an accused person in the course of a summary trial.

282. Interpreter to be bound to interpret truthfully.

When the services of an interpreter are required by any Criminal Court for the interpretation of any evidence or statement, he shall be bound to state the true interpretation of such evidence or statement.

283. Record in High Court.

Every High Court may, by general rule, prescribe the manner in which the evidence of witnesses and the examination of the accused shall be taken down in cases coming before it; and such evidence and examination shall be taken down in accordance with such rule.

B. Commissions for the examination of witnesses

284. When attendance of witness may be dispensed with and commission issued.

(1) Whenever, in the course of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, it appears to a Court or Magistrate that the examination of a witness is necessary for the ends of justice, and that the attendance of such witness cannot be procured without an amount of delay, expense or inconvenience which, under the circumstances of the case, would be unreasonable, the Court or Magistrate may dispense with such attendance and may issue a commission for the examination of the witness in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter : Provided that where the examination of the President or the Vice-President of India or the Governor of a State or the Administrator of a Union territory as a witness is necessary for the ends of justice, a commission shall be issued for the examination of such a witness. (2) The Court may, when issuing a commission for the examination of a witness for the prosecution, direct that such amount as the Court considers reasonable to meet the expenses of the accused, including the pleader's fees, be paid by the prosecution.

285. Commission to whom to be issued.

(1) If the witness is within the territories to which this Code extends, the commission shall be directed to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate, as the case may be, within whose local jurisdiction the witness is to be found. (2) If the witness is in India, but in a State or an area to which this Code does not extend, the commission shall be directed to such Court or officer as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf. (3) If the witness is in a country or place outside India and arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country or place for taking the evidence of witnesses in relation to criminal matters, the commission shall be issued in such form, directed to such Court or officer, and sent to such authority for transmission, as the Central Government may, by notification, prescribe in this behalf.

286. Execution of commissions.

Upon receipt of the commission, the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate, or such Metropolitan or Judicial Magistrate as he may appoint in this behalf, shall summon the witness before him or proceed to the place where the witness is, and shall take down his evidence in the same manner, and may for this purpose exercise the same powers, as in trials of warrant cases under this Code.

287. Parties may examine witnesses.

(1) The parties to any proceeding under this Code in which a commission is issued may respectively forward any interrogatories in writing which the Court or Magistrate directing the commission may think relevant to the issue, and it shall be lawful for the Magistrate, Court or officer to whom the commission is directed, or to whom the duty of executing it is delegated, to examine the witness upon such interrogatories. (2) Any such party may appear before such Magistrate, Court or officer by pleader, or if not in custody, in person, and may examine, cross-examine, and re-examine (as the case may be) the said witness.

288. Return of commission.

(1) After any commission issued under Section 284 has been duly executed, it shall be returned, together with the deposition of the witness examined thereunder, to the Court or Magistrate issuing the commission; and the commission, the return thereto and the deposition shall be open at all reasonable times to inspection of the parties, and may be, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in the case by either party, and shall form part of the record. (2) Any deposition so taken, if it satisfies the conditions prescribed by Section 33 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872) may also be received in evidence at any subsequent stage of the case before another Court.

289. Adjournment of proceeding.

In every case in which a commission is issued under Section 284, the inquiry, trial or other proceeding may be adjourned for a specified time reasonably sufficient for the execution and return of the commission.

290. Execution of foreign commissions.

(1) The provisions of Section 286 and so much of Section 287 and Section 288 as relate to the execution of a commission and its return shall apply in respect of commissions issued by any of the Courts, Judges or Magistrates hereinafter mentioned as they apply to commissions issued under Section 284. (2) The Courts, Judges and Magistrates referred to in sub-Section (1) are - (a) any such Court, Judge or Magistrate exercising jurisdiction within an area in India to which this Code does not extend, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf;

(b) any Court, Judge or Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in any such country or place outside India, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, and having authority, under the law in force in that country or place, to issue commissions for the examination of witnesses in relation to criminal matters.

291. Deposition of medical witness.

(1) The deposition of a Civil Surgeon or other medical witness, taken and attested by a Magistrate in the presence of the accused, or taken on commission under this Chapter, may be given in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although the deponent is not called as a witness. (2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, summon and examine any such deponent as to the subject-matter of his deposition.

[291A. Identification report of Magistrate

(1) Any document purporting to be a report of identification under the hand of an Executive Magistrate in respect of a person or property may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although such Magistrate is not called as a witness :Provided that where such report contains a statement of any suspect or witness to which the provisions of Section 21, Section 32, Section 33, Section 155 or Section 157, as the case may be, of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), apply, such statement shall not be used under this sub-Section except in accordance with the provisions of those Sections.(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or of the accused, summon and examine such Magistrate as to the subject-matter of the said report.]

[292. Evidence of officers of the Mint.

(1) Any document purporting to be a report under the hand of any such [officer of any Mint or of any Note Printing Press or of any Security Printing Press (including the officer of the Controller of Stamps and Stationery) or of any Forensic Department or Division of Forensic Science Laboratory or any Government Examiner of Questioned Documents or any State Examiner of Questioned Documents, as the case may be,] as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, upon any matter or thing duly submitted to him for examination and report in the course of any proceeding under this Code, may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although such officer is not called as a witness. (2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine any such officer as to the subject-matter of his report: Provided that no such officer shall be summoned to produce any records on which the report is based. (3) Without prejudice to the provisions of Sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), no such officer shall, [except with the permission of the General Manager or any officer in charge of any Mint or of any Note Printing Press or of any Security Printing Press or of any Forensic Department or any officer in charge of the Forensic Science Laboratory or of the Government Examiner of Questioned Documents Organisation or of the State Examiner of Questioned Documents Organisation, as the case may be,] be permitted- (a) to give any evidence derived from any unpublished official records on which the report is based; or

(b) to disclose the nature or particulars of any test applied by him in the course of examination of the matter or thing.

293. Reports of certain Government scientific experts.

(1) Any document purporting to be a report under the hand of a Government scientific expert to whom this Section applies, upon any matter or thing duly submitted to him for examination or analysis and report in the course of any proceeding under this Code, may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code. (2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine any such expert as to the subject-matter of his report. (3) Where any such expert is summoned by a Court and he is unable to attend personally, he may, unless the Court has expressly directed him to appear personally, depute any responsible officer working with him to attend the Court, if such officer is conversant with the facts of the case and can satisfactorily depose in Court on his behalf. (4) This section applies to the following Government scientific experts, namely :- (a) any Chemical Examiner or Assistant Chemical Examiner to Government;

[(b) the Chief Controller of Explosives;]

(c) the Director of the Finger Print Bureau;

(d) the Director, Haffkeine Institute, Bombay;

(e) the Director [Deputy Director or Assistant Director] of a Central Forensic Science Laboratory or a State Forensic Science Laboratory;

(f) the Serologist to the Government.

[(g) any other Government Scientific Expert specified, by notification, by the Central Government for this purpose.]

294. No formal proof of certain documents.

(1) Where any document is filed before any Court by the prosecution or the accused, the particulars of every such document shall be included in a list and the prosecution or the accused, as the case may be, or the pleader for the prosecution or the accused, if any, shall be called upon to admit or deny the genuineness of each such document. (2) The list of documents shall be in such form as may be prescribed by the State Government. (3) Where the genuineness of any document is not disputed, such document may be read in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code without proof of the signature of the person to whom it purports to be signed : Provided that the Court may, in its discretion, require such signature to be proved.

295. Affidavit in proof of conduct of public servants.

When any application is made to any Court in the course of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, and allegations are made therein respecting any public servant, the applicant may give evidence of the facts alleged in the application by affidavit, and the Court may, if it thinks fit, order that evidence relating to such facts be so given.

296. Evidence of formal character on affidavit.

(1) The evidence of any person whose evidence is of a formal character may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code. (2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit.

297. Authorities before whom affidavits may be sworn.

(1) Affidavits to be used before any Court under this Code may be sworn or affirmed before - [(a) any Judge or any Judicial or Executive Magistrate, or]

(b) any Commissioner of Oaths appointed by a High Court or Court of Session; or

(c) any Notary appointed under the Notaries Act, 1952 (53 of 1952).

(2) Affidavits shall be confined to, and shall state separately, such facts as the deponent is able to prove from his own knowledge and such facts as he has reasonable ground to believe to be true, and in the latter case, the deponent shall clearly state the grounds of such belief. (3) The Court may order any scandalous and irrelevant matter in the affidavit to be struck out or amended.

298. Previous conviction or acquittal how proved.

In any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, a previous conviction or acquittal may be proved, in addition to any mode provided by any law for the time being in force, - (a) by an extract certified under the hand of the officer having the custody of the records of the Court in which such conviction or acquittal was held, to be a copy of the sentence or order, or

(b) in case of a conviction, either by a certificate signed by the officer in charge of the jail in which the punishment or any part thereof was undergone, or by production of the warrant of commitment under which the punishment was suffered, together with, in each of such cases, evidence as to identity of the accused person with the person so convicted or acquitted.

299. Record of evidence in absence of accused.

(1) If it is proved that an accused person has absconded, and that there is no immediate prospect of arresting him, the Court competent to try [or commit for trial], such person for the offence complained of, may, in his absence, examine the witnesses (if any) produced on behalf of the prosecution, and record their depositions and any such deposition may, on the arrest of such person, be given in evidence against him on the inquiry into, or trial for, the offence with which he is charged, if the deponent is dead or incapable of giving evidence or cannot be found or his presence cannot be procured without an amount of delay, expense or inconvenience which, under the circumstances of the case, would be unreasonable.

(2) If it appears that an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life has been committed by some person or persons unknown, the High Court or the Sessions Judge may direct that any Magistrate of the first class shall hold an inquiry and examine any witness who can give evidence concerning the offence and any depositions so taken may be given in evidence against any person who is subsequently accused of the offence, if the deponent is dead or incapable of giving evidence or beyond the limit of India.

UPHJS2018-III Edit

60. In a criminal trial, without producing the Chemical Examiner to the Government, the report given by him upon a thing duly submitted for analysis in the course of any proceeding under the Code of Criminal Procedure:
A. Cannot be used as evidence
B. Can be used as evidence only in summons cases
C. Can be used as evidence
D. Can be used only to refresh memory of the Investigating Officer coming in evidence

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-II Edit

86. In a criminal trial, without producing the Chemical Examiner to the Government, the report given by him upon a thing duly submitted for analysis in the course of any proceeding under the Code of Criminal Procedure:
(a) cannot be used as evidence
(b) can be used as evidence only in summons cases
(c) can be used as evidence
(d) can be used only to refresh memory of the investigating officer coming in evidence.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-II Edit

84. For the purpose of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, who from amongst the following, may determine the language of each Court in the State other than the High Court?

(a) The High Court of the State
(b) The Supreme Court of India
(c) The State Government
(d) The Legislative Assembly of the State

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-III Edit

2. At the instance of accused ‘A’ the investigating agency recovers a blood stain sharp edge weapon .the weapon aforesaid is sent to the forensic science laboratory by the investigating agency for examination of the blood stains available on it . a report given by the director of the forensic science laboratory is placed on record by the investigating agency and is marked as exhibit ‘K’ . whether such a report may be used as evidence ? support the answers by referring relevant provisions of CRPC [15 marks]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


4. (a) Under what circumstances can evidence be recorded in the absence of an accused ? 10

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXIV GENERAL PROVISIONS AS TO INQUIRIES AND TRIALS Ss. 300 - 327
Edit

CHAPTER XXIV General Provisions As To Inquiries And Trials

300. Person once convicted or acquitted not to be tried for same offence.

(1) A person who has once been tried by a Court of competent jurisdiction for an offence and convicted or acquitted of such offence shall, while such conviction or acquittal remains in force, not be liable to be tried again for the same offence, nor on the same facts for any other offence for which a different charge from the one made against him might have been made under sub-section (1) of Section 221, or for which he might have been convicted under sub-section (2) thereof.

(2) A person acquitted or convicted of any offence may be afterwards tried, with the consent of the State Government, for any distinct offence for which a separate charge might have been made against him at the former trial under sub-section (1) of Section 220.

(3) A person convicted of any offence constituted by any act causing consequences which, together with such act, constituted a different offence from that of which he was convicted, may be afterwards tried for such last-mentioned offence, if the consequences had not happened, or were not known to the Court to have happened, at the time when he was convicted.

(4) A person acquitted or convicted of any offence constituted by any acts may, notwithstanding such acquittal or conviction, be subsequently charged with, and tried for, any other offence constituted by the same acts which he may have committed if the Court by which he was first tried was not competent to try the offence with which he is subsequently charged.

(5) A person discharged under Section 258 shall not be tried again for the same offence except with the consent of the Court by which he was discharged or of any Court to which the first mentioned Court is subordinate.

(6) Nothing in this section shall affect the provisions of Section 26 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897) or of Section 188 of this Code.

Explanation. - The dismissal of a complaint, or the discharge of the accused is not an acquittal for the purposes of this section.

Illustrations

(a) A is tried upon a charge of theft as a servant and acquitted. He cannot afterwards, while the acquittal remains in force, be charged with theft as a servant, or, upon the same facts, with theft simply, or with criminal breach of trust.

(b) A is tried for causing grievous hurt and convicted. The person injured afterwards dies. A may be tried again for culpable homicide.

(c) A is charged before the Court of Session and convicted of the culpable homicide of B. A may not afterwards be tried on the same facts for the murder of B.

(d) A is charged by a Magistrate of the first class with, and convicted by him of, voluntarily causing hurt to B. A may not afterwards be tried for voluntarily causing grievous hurt to B on the same facts, unless this case comes within sub-section (3) of this section.

(e) A is charged by a Magistrate of the second class with, and convicted by him of, theft of property from the person of B. A may subsequently be charged with, and tried for, robbery on the same facts.

(f) A, B and C are charged by a Magistrate of the first class with, and convicted by him of, robbing D. A, B and C may afterwards be charged with, and tried for, dacoity on the same facts.

301. Appearance by Public Prosecutors.

(1) The Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor in charge of a case may appear and plead without any written authority before any Court in which that case is under inquiry, trial or appeal.

(2) If in any such case any private person instructs a pleader to prosecute any person in any Court, the Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor in charge of the case shall conduct the prosecution, and the pleader so instructed shall act therein under the directions of the Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor, and may, with the permission of the Court, submit written arguments after the evidence is closed in the case.

302. Permission to conduct prosecution.

(1) Any Magistrate inquiring into or trying a case may permit the prosecution to be conducted by any person other than a police officer below the rank of Inspector; but no person, other than the Advocate-General or Government Advocate or a Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor, shall be entitled to do so without such permission : Provided that no police officer shall be permitted to conduct the prosecution if he has taken part in the investigation into the offence with respect to which the accused is being prosecuted. (2) Any person conducting the prosecution may do so personally or by a pleader.

303. Right of person against whom proceedings are instituted to be defended.

Any person accused of an offence before a Criminal Court, or against whom proceedings are instituted under this Code, may of right be defended by a pleader of his choice.

304. Legal aid to accused at State expense in certain cases.

(1) Where, in a trial before the Court of Session, the accused is not represented by a pleader, and where it appears to the Court that the accused has not sufficient means to engage a pleader, the Court shall assign a pleader for his defence at the expense of the State. (2) The High Court may, with the previous approval of the State Government, make rules providing for - (a) the mode of selecting pleaders for defence under sub-section (1);

(b) the facilities to be allowed to such pleaders by the Courts;

(c) the fees payable to such pleaders by the Government, and generally, for carrying out the purposes of sub-section (1).

(3) The State Government may, by notification, direct that, as from such date as may be specified in the notification, the provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2) shall apply in relation to any class of trials before other Courts in the State as they apply in relation to trials before Courts of Session.

305. Procedure when corporation or registered society is an accused.

(1) In this section, "corporation" means an incorporated company or other body corporate, and includes a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860). (2) Where a corporation is the accused person or one of the accused persons in an inquiry or trial, it may appoint a representative for the purpose of the inquiry or trial and such appointment need not be under the seal of the corporation. (3) Where a representative of a corporation appears, any requirement of this Code that anything shall be done in the presence of the accused or shall be read or stated or explained to the accused, shall be construed as a requirement that that thing shall be done in the presence of the representative or read or stated or explained to the representative, and any requirement that the accused shall be examined shall be construed as a requirement that the representative shall be examined. (4) Where a representative of a corporation does not appear, any such requirement as is referred to in sub-section (3) shall not apply. (5) Where a statement in writing purporting to be signed by the managing director of the corporation or by any person (by whatever name called) having, or being one of the persons having the management of the affairs of the corporation to the effect that the person named in the statement has been appointed as the representative of the corporation for the purposes of this section, is filed, the Court shall, unless the contrary is proved, presume that such person has been so appointed. (6) If a question arises as to whether any person, appearing as the representative of a corporation in an inquiry or trial before a Court is or is not such representative, the question shall be determined by the Court.

306. Tender of pardon to accomplice.

(1) With a view to obtaining the evidence of any person supposed to have been directly or indirectly concerned in or privy to an offence to which this section applies, the Chief Judicial Magistrate or a Metropolitan Magistrate at any stage of the investigation or inquiry into, or the trial of, the offence, and the Magistrate of the first class inquiring into or trying the offence, at any stage of the inquiry or trial, may tender a pardon to such person on condition of his making full and true disclosure of the whole of the circumstances within his knowledge relative to the offence and to every other person concerned, whether as principal or abettor, in the commission thereof.

(2) This section applies to - (a) any offence triable exclusively by the Court of Session or by the Court of a Special Judge appointed under the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1952 (46 of 1952);

(b) any offence punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven years or with a more severe sentence.

(3) Every Magistrate who tenders a pardon under sub-section (1) shall record - (a) his reasons for so doing;

(b) whether the tender was or was not accepted by the person to whom it was made, and shall, on application made by the accused, furnish him with a copy of such record free of cost.

(4) Every person accepting a tender of pardon made under sub-section (1) - (a) shall be examined as a witness in the Court of the Magistrate taking cognizance of the offence and in the subsequent trial, if any;

(b) shall, unless he is already on bail, be detained in custody until the termination of the trial.

(5) Where a person has accepted a tender of pardon made under sub-section (1) and has been examined under sub-section (4), the Magistrate taking cognizance of the offence shall, without making any further inquiry in the case, - (a) commit it for trial -

(i) to the Court of Session if the offence is triable exclusively by that Court or if the Magistrate taking cognizance is the Chief Judicial Magistrate;

(ii) to a Court of Special Judge appointed under the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1952 (46 of 1952), if the offence is triable exclusively by that Court;

(b) in any other case, make over the case to the Chief Judicial Magistrate who shall try the case himself.

307. Power to direct tender of pardon.

At any time after commitment of a case but before judgment is passed, the Court to which the commitment is made may, with a view to obtaining at the trial the evidence of any person supposed to have been directly or indirectly concerned in, or privy to, any such offence, tender a pardon on the same condition to such person.

308. Trial of person not complying with conditions of pardon.

(1) Where, in regard to a person who has accepted a tender of pardon made under Section 306 or Section 307, the Public Prosecutor certifies that in his opinion such person has, either by wilfully concealing anything essential or by giving false evidence, not complied with the condition on which the tender was made, such person may be tried for the offence in respect of which the pardon was so tendered or for any other offence of which he appears to have been guilty in connection with the same matter, and also for the offence of giving false evidence : Provided that such person shall not be tried jointly with any of the other accused : Provided further that such person shall not be tried for the offence of giving false evidence except with the sanction of the High Court, and nothing contained in Section 195 or Section 340 shall apply to that offence. (2) Any statement made by such person accepting the tender of pardon and recorded by a Magistrate under Section 164 or by a Court under sub-section (4) of Section 306 may be given in evidence against him at such trial. (3) At such trial, the accused shall be entitled to plead that he has complied with the condition upon which such tender was made; in which case it shall be for the prosecution to prove that the condition has not been complied with. (4) At such trial, the Court shall - (a) if it is a Court of Session, before the charge is read out and explained to the accused;

(b) if it is the Court of a Magistrate, before the evidence of the witnesses for the prosecution is taken;

ask the accused whether he pleads that he has complied with the conditions on which the tender of pardon was made.

(5) If the accused does so plead, the Court shall record the plea and proceed with the trial and it shall, before passing judgment in the case, find whether or not the accused has complied with the conditions of the pardon, and, if it finds that he has so complied, it shall, notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, pass judgment of acquittal.

309. Power to postpone or adjourn proceedings.

[(1) In every inquiry or trial the proceedings shall be continued from day-to-day until all the witnesses in attendance have been examined, unless the Court finds the adjournment of the same beyond the following day to be necessary for reasons to be recorded:Provided that when the inquiry or trial relates to an offence under section 376, [section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB of the Indian Penal Code, the inquiry or trial shall] be completed within a period of two months from the date of filing of the charge sheet.] (2) If the Court, after taking cognizance of an offence, or commencement of trial, finds it necessary or advisable to postpone the commencement of, or adjourn, any inquiry or trial, it may, from time to time, for reasons to be recorded, postpone or adjourn the same on such terms as it thinks fit, for such time as it considers reasonable and may by a warrant remand the accused if in custody : Provided that no Magistrate shall remand an accused person to custody under this section for a term exceeding fifteen days at a time : Provided further that when witnesses are in attendance, no adjournment or postponement shall be granted, without examining them, except for special reasons to be recorded in writing : [Provided also that no adjournment shall be granted for the purpose only of enabling the accused person to show cause against the sentence proposed to be imposed on him.] [Provided also that-(a) no adjournment shall be granted at the request of a party, except where the circumstances are beyond the control of that party;(b) the fact that the pleader of a party is engaged in another Court, shall not be a ground for adjournment;(c) where a witness is present in Court but a party or his pleader is not present or the party or his pleader though present in Court, is not ready to examine or cross-examine the witness, the Court may, if thinks fit, record the statement of the witness and pass such orders as it thinks fit dispensing with the examination-in-chief or cross-examination of the witness, as the case may be.]Explanation 1. - If sufficient evidence has been obtained to raise a suspicion that the accused may have committed an offence, and it appears likely that further evidence may be obtained by a remand, this is a reasonable cause for a remand. Explanation 2. - The terms on which an adjournment or postponement may be granted include, in appropriate cases, the payment of costs by the prosecution or the accused.

310. Local Inspection.

(1) Any Judge or Magistrate may, at any stage of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding, after due notice to the parties, visit and inspect any place in which an offence is alleged to have been committed, or any other place which it is in his opinion necessary to view for the purpose of properly appreciating the evidence given at such inquiry or trial, and shall without unnecessary delay record a memorandum of any relevant facts observed at such inspection. (2) Such memorandum shall form part of the record of the case and if the prosecutor, complainant or accused or any other party to the case, so desires, a copy of the memorandum shall be furnished to him free of cost.

311. Power to summon material witness, or examine person present.

Any Court may, at any stage of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, summon any person in attendance, though not summoned as a witness, or recall and re-examine any person already examined; and the Court shall summon and examine or recall and re-examine any such person if his evidence appears to it to be essential to the just decision of the case.

[311-A. Power of Magistrate to order person to give specimen signatures or handwriting.

If a Magistrate of the first class is satisfied that, for the purposes of any investitgation or proceeding under this Code, it is expedient to direct any person, including an accused person, to give specimen signatures or handwriting, he may make an order to that effect and in that case the person to whom the order relates shall be produced or shall attend at the time and place specified in such order and shall give his specimen signatures or handwriting:Provided that no order shall be made under this Section unless the person has at some time been arrested in connection with such investigation or proceeding.]

312. Expenses of complainants and witnesses.

Subject to any rules made by the State Government, any Criminal Court may, if it thinks fit, order payment, on the part of Government, of the reasonable expenses of any complainant or witness attending for the purposes of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding before such Court under this Code.

313. Power to examine the accused.

(1) In every inquiry or trial, for the purpose of enabling the accused personally to explain any circumstances appearing in the evidence against him, the Court - (a) may at any stage, without previously warning the accused, put such questions to him as the Court considers necessary;

(b) shall, after the witnesses for the prosecution have been examined and before he is called on for his defence, question him generally on the case :

Provided that in a summons-case, where the Court has dispensed with the personal attendance of the accused, it may also dispense with his examination under clause (b). (2) No oath shall be administered to the accused when he is examined under sub-section (1). (3) The accused shall not render himself liable to punishment by refusing to answer such questions, or by giving false answers to them. (4) The answers given by the accused may be taken into consideration in such inquiry or trial, and put in evidence for or against him in any other inquiry into, or trial for, any other offence which such answers may tend to show he has committed. [(5) The Court may take help of Prosecutor and Defence Counsel in preparing relevant questions which are to be put to the accused and the Court may permit filing of written statement by the accused as sufficient compliance of this section.]

314. Oral arguments and memorandum of arguments.

(1) Any party to a proceeding may, as soon as may be, after the close of his evidence, address concise oral arguments, and may, before he concludes the oral arguments, if any, submit a memorandum to the Court setting forth concisely and under distinct headings, the arguments in support of his case and every such memorandum shall form part of the record. (2) A copy of every such memorandum shall be simultaneously furnished to the opposite party. (3) No adjournment of the proceedings shall be granted for the purpose of filing the written arguments unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, considers it necessary to grant such adjournment. (4) The Court may, if it is of opinion that the oral arguments are not concise or relevant, regulate such arguments.

315. Accused person to be competent witness.

(1) Any person accused of an offence before a Criminal Court shall be a competent witness for the defence and may give evidence on oath in disproof of the charges made against him or any person charged together with him at the same trial : Provided that - (a) he shall not be called as a witness except on his own request in writing;

(b) his failure to give evidence shall not be made the subject of any comment by any of the parties or the Court or give rise to any presumption against himself or any person charged together with him at the same trial.

(2) Any person against whom proceedings are instituted in any Criminal Court under Section 98, or Section 107, or Section 108, or Section 109, or Section 110, or under Chapter IX or under Part B, Part C or Part D of Chapter X, may offer himself as a witness in such proceedings : Provided that in proceedings under Section 108, Section 109 or Section 110, the failure of such person to give evidence shall not be made the subject of any comment by any of the parties or the Court or give rise to any presumption against him or any other person proceeded against together with him at the same inquiry.

316. No influence to be used to induce disclosure.

Except as provided in Sections 306 and 307, no influence, by means of any promise or threat or otherwise, shall be used to an accused person to induce him to disclose or withhold any matter within his knowledge.

317. Provision for inquiries and trial being held in the absence of accused in certain cases.

(1) At any stage of an inquiry or trial under this Code, if the Judge or Magistrate is satisfied, for reasons to be recorded, that the personal attendance of the accused before the Court is not necessary in the interests of justice, or that the accused persistently disturbs the proceedings in Court, the Judge or Magistrate may, if the accused is represented by a pleader, dispense with his attendance and proceed with such inquiry or trial in his absence, and may, at any subsequent stage of the proceedings, direct the personal attendance of such accused. (2) If the accused in any such case is not represented by a pleader, or if the Judge or Magistrate considers his personal attendance necessary, he may, if he thinks fit and for reasons to be recorded by him, either adjourn such inquiry or trial, or order that the case of such accused be taken up or tried separately.

318. Procedure where accused does not understand proceedings.

If the accused, though not of unsound mind, cannot be made to understand the proceedings, the Court may proceed with the inquiry or trial, and, in the case of a Court other than a High Court, if such proceedings result in a conviction, the proceedings shall be forwarded to the High Court with a report of the circumstances of the case, and the High Court shall pass thereon such order as it thinks fit.

319. Power to proceed against other persons appearing to be guilty of offence.

(1) Where, in the course of any inquiry into, or trial of, an offence, it appears from the evidence that any person not being the accused has committed any offence for which such person could be tried together with the accused, the Court may proceed against such person for the offence which he appears to have committed. (2) Where such person is not attending the Court, he may be arrested or summoned, as the circumstances of the case may require, for the purpose aforesaid. (3) Any person attending the Court, although not under arrest or upon a summons, may be detained by such Court for the purpose of the inquiry into, or trial of, the offence which he appears to have committed. (4) Where the Court proceeds against any person under sub-section (1), then - (a) the proceedings in respect of such person shall be commenced afresh, and the witnesses re-heard;

(b) subject to the provisions of clause (a), the case may proceed as if such person had been an accused person when the Court took cognizance of the offence upon which the inquiry or trial was commenced.

320. Compounding of offences.

(1) The offences punishable under the sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), specified in the first two columns of the Table next following may be compounded by the persons mentioned in the third column of that Table :-

[TABLE]

Offence. Section of the Indian Penal Code applicable. Person by whom offence may be compounded
1. 2. 3
Uttering words.. etc.. with deliberate intent to wound the religious feelings of any person. 298. The person whose religious feelings are intended to be wounded.
Voluntarily causing hurt. 323. The person to whom the hurt is caused.
Voluntarily causing hurt on provocation. 334. Ditto.
Voluntarily causing grievous hurt on provocation. 335. Ditto.
Wrongfully restraining or confining any person. 341,342. The person restrained or confined.
Wrongfully confining a person for three days or more. 343. The person confined.
Wrongfully confining a person for ten days or more. 344. Ditto.
Wrongfully confining a person in secret. 346. Ditto.
Assault or use of criminal force. 352,355, 358. The person assaulted or to whom criminal force is used.
Theft. 379. The owner of the property stolen.
Dishonest misappropriation of property. 403. The owner of the property misappropriated.
Criminal breach of trust by a carrier.. wharfinger. etc. 407. Ditto.
Dishonestly receiving stolen property knowing it to be stolen. 411. The owner of the property stolen.
Assisting in the concealment or disposal of stolen property. knowing it to be stolen. 414. Ditto.
Cheating. 417. The person cheated.
Cheating by personation. 419. Ditto.
Fraudulent removal or concealment of property. etc. to prevent distribution among creditors. 421. The creditors who are affected thereby.
Fraudulently preventing from being made available for his creditors a debt or demand due to the offender. 422. Ditto.
Fraudulent execution of deed of transfer containing false statement of consideration. 423. The person affected thereby.
Fraudulent removal or concealment of property. 424. Ditto.
Mischief.. when the only loss or damage caused is loss or damage to a private person. 426, 427. The person to whom the loss or damage is caused.
Mischief by killing or maiming animal. 428. The owner of the animal.
Mischief by killing or maiming cattle.. etc. 429. The owner of the cattle or animal.
Mischief by injury to works of irrigation by wrongfully diverting water when the only loss or damage caused is loss or damage to private person. 430. The person to whom the loss or damage is caused.
Criminal trespass. 447. The person in possession of the property trespassed upon.
House-trespass. 448. Ditto.
House-trespass to commit an offence (other than theft) punishable with imprisonment. 451. The person in possession of the house trespassed upon.
Using a false trade or property mark. 482. The person to whom loss or injury is caused by such use.
Counterfeiting a trade or property mark used by another. 483. The person to whom loss or injury is caused by such use.
Knowingly selling. or exposing or possessing for sale or for manufacturing purpose. goods marked with a counterfeit property mark. 486. Ditto.
Criminal breach of contract of service. 491. The person with whom the offender has contracted.
Adultery. 497. The husband of the woman.
Enticing or taking away or detaining with criminal intent a married woman. 498. The husband of the woman and the woman.
Defamation.. except such cases as are specified against section 500 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) in column 1 of the Table under sub-section (2). 500. The person defamed.
Printing or engraving matter.. knowing it to be defamatory. 501. Ditto.
Sale of printed or engraved substance containing defamatory matter. knowing it to contain such matter. 502. Ditto.
Insult intended to provoke a breach of the peace. 504. The person insulted.
Criminal intimidation. 506. The person intimidated.
Inducing person to believe himself and object of divine displeasure. 508. The person induced.]

(2) The offences punishable under the Sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), specified in the first two columns of the Table next following may, with the permission of the Court before which any prosecution for such offence is pending be compounded by the persons mentioned in the third column of that Table :-

TABLE

Offence Section of the Indian Penal Code applicable Person by whom offence may be compounded
1 2 3
Causing miscarriage. 312 The woman to whom miscarriage is caused.
Voluntarily causing grievous hurt. 325 The person to whom hurt is caused.
Causing hurt by doing an act so rashly and negligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety of others. 337 Ditto
Causing grievous hurt by doing an act so rashly and negligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety of others. 338 Ditto
Assault or criminal force in attempting wrongfully to confine a person. 357 The person assaulted or to whom the force was used.
Theft by clerk or servant of property in possession of master. 381 The owner of the property stolen.
Criminal breach of trust. 406 The owner of property in respect of which the breach of trust has been committed.
Criminal breach of trust by a clerk or servant. 408 Ditto
Cheating a person whose interest the offender was bound either by law or by legal contract to protect. 418 The person cheated.
Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property or the making alteration or destruction of a valuable security. 420 The person cheated.
Marrying again during the life-time of a husband or wife. 494 The husband or wife of the person so marrying.
Defamation against the President or the Vice-President or the Governor of a State or the Administrator of a Union territory or a Minister in respect of his public functions when instituted upon a complaint made by the Public Prosecutor. 500 The person defamed.
Uttering words or sounds or making gestures or exhibiting any object intending to insult the modesty of a woman or intruding upon the privacy of a woman. 509 The woman whom it was intended to insult or whose privacy was intruded upon.]

[(3) When any offence is compoundable under this section, the abetment of such offence or an attempt to commit such offence (when such attempt is itself an offence) or where the accused is liable under Section 34 or 149 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) may be compounded in like manner.] (4)(a) When the person who would otherwise be competent to compound an offence under this section is under the age of eighteen years or is an idiot or a lunatic, any person competent to contract on his behalf may, with the permission of the Court, compound such offence. (b) When the person who would otherwise be competent to compound an offence under this section is dead, the legal representative, as defined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) of such person may, with the consent of the Court, compound such offence.

(5) When the accused has been committed for trial or when he has been convicted and an appeal is pending, no composition for the offence shall be allowed without the leave of the Court to which he is committed, or as the case may be, before which the appeal is to be heard. (6) A High Court or Court of Session acting in the exercise of its powers of revision under Section 401 may allow any person to compound any offence which such person is competent to compound under this section. (7) No offence shall be compounded if the accused is, by reason of a previous conviction, liable either to enhanced punishment or to a punishment of a different kind for such offence. (8) The composition of an offence under this section shall have the effect of an acquittal of the accused with whom the offence has been compounded. (9) No offence shall be compounded except as provided by this section.

321. Withdrawal from prosecution.

The Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor in charge of a case may, with the consent of the Court, at any time before the judgment is pronounced, withdraw from the prosecution of any person either generally or in respect of any one or more of the offences for which he is tried; and, upon such withdrawal, - (a) if it is made before a charge has been framed, the accused shall be discharged in respect of such offence or offences;

(b) if it is made after a charge has been framed, or when under this Code no charge is required, he shall be acquitted in respect of such offence or offences :

Provided that where such offence - (i) was against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends, or

(ii) was investigated by the Delhi Special Police Establishment under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946 (25 of 1946), or

(iii) involved the misappropriation or destruction of, or damage to, any property belonging to the Central Government, or

(iv) was committed by a person in the service of the Central Government while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty, and the Prosecutor in charge of the case has not been appointed by the Central Government, he shall not, unless he has been permitted by the Central Government to do so, move the Court for its consent to withdraw from the prosecution and the Court shall, before according consent, direct the Prosecutor to produce before it the permission granted by the Central Government to withdraw from the prosecution.

322. Procedure in cases which Magistrate cannot dispose of.

(1) If, in the course of any inquiry into an offence or a trial before a Magistrate in any district, the evidence appears to him to warrant a presumption - (a) that he has no jurisdiction to try the case or commit it for trial, or

(b) that the case is one which should be tried or committed for trial by some other Magistrate in the district, or

(c) that the case should be tried by the Chief Judicial Magistrate, he shall stay the proceedings and submit the case, with a brief report explaining its nature, to the Chief Judicial Magistrate or to such other Magistrate, having jurisdiction, as the Chief Judicial Magistrate directs.

(2) The Magistrate to whom the case is submitted may, if so empowered, either try the case himself, or refer it to any Magistrate subordinate to him having jurisdiction, or commit the accused for trial.

323. Procedure when, after commencement of inquiry or trial, Magistrate finds case should be committed.

If, in any inquiry into an offence or a trial before a Magistrate, it appears to him at any stage of the proceedings before signing judgment that the case is one which ought to be tried by the Court of Session, he shall commit it to that Court under the provisions hereinbefore contained [and thereupon the provisions of Chapter XVIII shall apply to the commitment so made].

324. Trial of persons previously convicted of offences against coinage, stamp-law or property.

(1) Where a person, having been convicted of an offence punishable under Chapter XII or Chapter XVII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) with imprisonment for a term of three years or upwards, is again accused of any offence punishable under either of those Chapters with imprisonment for a term of three years or upwards, and the Magistrate before whom the case is pending is satisfied that there is ground for presuming that such person has committed the offence, he shall be sent for trial to the Chief Judicial Magistrate or committed to the Court of Session, unless the Magistrate is competent to try the case and is of opinion that he can himself pass an adequate sentence if the accused is convicted. (2) When any person is sent for trial to the Chief Judicial Magistrate or committed to the Court of Session under sub-section (1) any other person accused jointly with him in the same inquiry or trial shall be similarly sent or committed, unless the Magistrate discharges such other person under Section 239 or Section 245, as the case may be.

325. Procedure when Magistrate cannot pass sentence sufficiently severe.

(1) Whenever a Magistrate is of opinion, after hearing the evidence for the prosecution and the accused, that the accused is guilty, and that he ought to receive a punishment different in kind from, or more severe than, that which such Magistrate is empowered to inflict, or, being a Magistrate of the second class, is of opinion that the accused ought to be required to execute a bond under Section 106, he may record the opinion and submit his proceedings, and forward the accused, to the Chief Judicial Magistrate to whom he is subordinate. (2) When more accused than one are being tried together, and the Magistrate considers it necessary to proceed under sub-section (1), in regard to any of such accused, he shall forward all the accused, who are in his opinion guilty, to the Chief Judicial Magistrate. (3) The Chief Judicial Magistrate to whom the proceedings are submitted may, if he thinks fit, examine the parties and recall and examine any witness who has already given evidence in the case and may call for and take any further evidence, and shall pass such judgment, sentence or order in the case as he thinks fit, and as is according to law.

326. Conviction or commitment on evidence partly recorded by one Judge or Magistrate and partly by another.

(1) Whenever any [Judge or Magistrate], after having heard and recorded whole or any part of the evidence in an inquiry or a trial, ceases to exercise jurisdiction therein and is succeeded by another [Judge or Magistrate] who has and who exercises such jurisdiction, the [Judge or Magistrate] so succeeding may act on the evidence so recorded by his predecessor, or partly recorded by his predecessor and partly recorded by himself : Provided that if the succeeding [Judge or Magistrate] is of opinion that further examination of any of the witnesses whose evidence has already been recorded is necessary in the interests of justice, he may re-summon any such witness, and after such further examination, cross-examination and re-examination, if any, as he may permit, the witness shall be discharged. (2) When a case is transferred under the provisions of this Code [from one Judge to another Judge or from one Magistrate to another Magistrate], the former shall be deemed to cease to exercise jurisdiction therein, and to be succeeded by the latter, within the meaning of sub-section (1). (3) Nothing in this section applies to summary trials or to cases in which proceedings have been stayed under section 322 or in which proceedings have been submitted to a superior Magistrate under section 325.

327. Court to be open.

[(1)] The place in which any Criminal Court is held for the purpose of inquiring into or trying any offence shall be deemed to be an open Court, to which the public generally may have access, so far as the same can conveniently contain them : Provided that the Presiding Judge or Magistrate may, if he thinks fit, order at any stage of any inquiry into, or trial of, any particular case, that the public generally, or any particular person, shall not have access to, or be or remain in, the room or building used by the Court. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the inquiry into and trial of rape or an offence under section 376, section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB,] [or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code] of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall be conducted in camera : Provided that the Presiding Judge may, if he thinks fit, or on an application made by either of the parties, allow any particular person to have access to, or be or remain in, the room or building used by the court. [Provided further that in camera trial shall be conducted as far as practicable by a woman Judge or Magistrate.] (3) Where any proceedings are held under sub-section (2), it shall not be lawful for any person to print or publish any matter in relation to any such proceedings, except with the previous permission of the court.] [Provided that the ban on printing or publication of trial proceedings in relation to an offence of rape may be lifted, subject to maintaining confidentiality of name and address of the parties.]

Edit

Section 311 CrPC

"311. Power to summon material witness, or examine person present.—Any Court may, at any stage of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, summon any person as a witness   or   examine   any   person   in   attendance,   though   not summoned as a witness or recall and re­examine any person already examined; and the court shall summon and examine or   recall   and   re­examine   any   such   person   if   his   evidence appears to it to be essential to the just decision of the case."

 

Mohanlal Shamji Soni v Union of India and another, 1991 SCC (Cri) 595

U.T.   of   Dadra   and   Nagar   Haveli  v  Fatehsinh Mohansinh Chauhan, (2006) 7 SCC 529

Zahira Habibullah Sheikh (5) and another  v  State of Gujarat and others, (2006) 3 SCC 374

P. Sanjeeva Rao v State of   A.P.

7 ,   after   referring   to   the   earlier   decisions   in  Hoffman Andreas  v  Inspector of Customs8 ,  Mohanlal Shamji Soni  v Union of India4   and  Maria Margarida Sequeria Fernandes  v Erasmo Jack de Sequeria9

More...

Seturaman v Rajamanickam, (2009) 5 SCC 153 Order passed under Section 311 Cr.P.C. is of an interlocutory nature and accordingly the remedy of revision against the said order is barred in terms of Section 397(2) Cr.P.C.

Even otherwise the availability of alternative remedy of revision under Section 397 Cr.P.C. by itself would not constitute a bar for entertaining an application under Section 482 Cr.P.C., as held in Dhariwal Tobacco Products Ltd. v State of Maharashtra , (2009) 2 SCC 370 and affirmed in Prabhu Chawla v State of Rajasthan and another (2016) 16 SCC 30

UPHJS2018-II Edit

1. The Court, after the commencement of prosecution evidence, allows the Assistant Public Prosecutor to withdraw the prosecution. The accused shall be:
(a) released
(b) discharged
(c) acquitted
(d) None of the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-I Edit

24. Which of the following offences is cognizable, non-bailable and un-compoundable:
(a) voluntarily causing grievous hurt, punishable under Section 325 IPC
(b) attempt to murder punishable under Section 307 IPC
(c) voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession, or to compel  restoration of property, punishable under Section 330IPC
(d) voluntarily causing grievous hurt on provocation punishable under Section 335 IPC

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2016 Edit

70. Mark the correct statement:
(a) Article 20 (2) of the Constitution of India incorporates the principle of autrefois acquit and autrefois convict and is equivalent to the principle laid down in Section 300 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
(b) A person discharged under Section 258 of the Code of Criminal Procedure can be tried again for the same offence
(c) The composition of an offence under Section 320 of Cr. P.C. and withdrawal from prosecution under Section 321 of Cr. P.C. would not bar the trial of the accused on same facts in a subsequent case
(d) All of the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

55. Compounding of an offence will result in-
(A) acquittal
(B) discharge
(C) compromise
(D) conviction.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

75. Power under Section 319 of Cr.RC. can be exercised-
(A) by the Magistrate and the Court of Sessions both only after recording of evidence during the inquiry or trial
(B) by the Magistrate before recording of evidence but by the Court of Sessions only after recording of evidence
(C) by The Magistrate and the Court of Sessions both even before recording of evidence
(D) . by the Magistrate only after recording evidence but by the Court of Sessions before recording of evidence.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2009 Edit

90. “Accused statement under Section 313 Cr.P.C. is to be recorded on oath”-
(A) above statement is true
(B) above statement is false
(C) above statement is partially true
(D) None of above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2009 Edit

91. For summoning an accused under Section 319 Cr.P.C.-
(A) statement under 161 Cr.P.C. is relevant
(B) statement on oath in the trial is relevant
(C) both the above statements are relevant
(D) None of the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2009 Edit

95. Inquiry is conducted by a Magistrate with a view to-
(A) find out a prima-facie case
(B) convict the accused
(C) authorize remand of the accused
(D) release the accused under Section 436

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-III Edit

1. Discuss the provisions in code of CrPC relating to power to examine the accused and accused person to be competent witness [15 marks]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2018-II Edit

  1. Discuss the ingredients of the recall of witness under Section 311 Code of Criminal Procedure with with relevant case law on the subject. [10]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2014 Edit


10. Discuss the ingredients for the recall of a witness under Section 311 of Cr. P.C. with relevant case laws on the subject. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2007 Edit


6. What are the objects of recalling a witness under Section 311 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and when the court should not exercise power of recalling a witness for cross examination? 15

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


3. (b) Who can withdraw a prosecution ? What are the relevant considerations for withdrawing it ? Answer referring to relevant sections and case laws. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

------Section 319

Edit

319. Power to proceed against other persons appearing to be guilty of offence.

(1) Where, in the course of any inquiry into, or trial of, an offence, it appears from the evidence that any person not being the accused has committed any offence for which such person could be tried together with the accused, the Court may proceed against such person for the offence which he appears to have committed.

(2) Where such person is not attending the Court, he may be arrested or summoned, as the circumstances of the case may require, for the purpose aforesaid.

(3) Any person attending the Court, although not under arrest or upon a summons, may be detained by such Court for the purpose of the inquiry into, or trial of, the offence which he appears to have committed.

(4) Where the Court proceeds against any person under sub- section (1), then-

(a) the proceedings in respect of such person shall be commenced a fresh, and the witnesses re- heard;

(b) subject to the provisions of clause (a), the case may proceed as if such person had been an accused person when the Court took cognizance of the offence upon which the inquiry or trial was commenced.

More...

UPHJS2018-II Edit

16. Whether a Court of Sessions has power to add any person for trial without
there being a committal order against such person?

(a) No

(b) Yes

(c) Depends upon fails of the case

(d) On having permission from High Court

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS 2020 Edit

28. At a trial against ‘A’, ‘Z’ may be summoned by the trial Court, to be tried along with ‘A’ only if that Court is satisfied that there exists:-

(A) All of the above
(B) Only (i)
(C) Only (ii)
(D) Only (iv)

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-III Edit

3. On basis of a police report submitted by the prosecution, a charge for commission of offence under Section 302 Indian penal code is framed against the accused. on denial of the charge the accused is subjected to trial as desired by him .during the course of the trial the prosecution witness Z states that during the course of commission of crime the weapon of offence was supplied to accused ‘A’ by a person namely ‘B’. while doing so B instigated accused A to commit the crime. What power is available to the trial court to proceed against B who appears to be guilty of offence? [15 marks] 

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2018-III Edit

14 (b) Power of Court during course of an enquiry or trial of an offence to proceed against other person appearing to be guilty of offence. [10]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2018-II Edit

  1. Discuss the grounds on which an application under section 319 Code Of Criminal Procedure for summoning of a person as an accused can be filed, and explain at what stage of the proceedings the Court can do so, with reference to the latest case law of the Supreme Court. [10]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2016 Edit


3(a). Explain the power of the Trial Court to proceed against other persons not being accused appearing to be guilty or the offence with reference to the latest case law. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2014 Edit


3. Discuss the grounds on which an application under Section 319, Cr. P.C. for summoning of a person as an accused can be filed, and at what stage of the proceedings can the court do so, with (reference to the latest case law of the Supreme Court in the case of Hardeep Singh v. State of Punjab, (2014) 3 SCC 92. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009 Edit


6. At what stage the power under Section 319 of the Code of Criminal Procedure is to be exercised by the Court? What is the difference between the powers of the Court under Section 311, Cr.P.C. and Section 319, Cr.P.C.? 20

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXV PROVISIONS AS TO ACCUSED PERSONS OF UNSOUND MIND

---CHAPTER XXVI PROVISIONS AS TO OFFENCES AFFECTING THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

UPHJS2007 Edit


8. What is the distinction between the provisions of Sections 340 and 344 of Cr.P.C. relating to the offence affecting the administration of justice? 15


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXVII THE JUDGMENT

Edit

Quantum of Punishment u/s 376 IPC

More...

Apex Court in Gopal Singh vs State Of Uttarakhand (2013) 3 SCC (Cri) 608 has propounded:-

"Just punishment is the collective cry of the society. While the collective cry has to be kept uppermost in the mind, simultaneously the principle of proportionality between the crime and punishment cannot be totally brushed aside. The principle of just punishment is the bedrock of sentencing in respect of a criminal offence. A punishment should not be disproportionately excessive. The concept of proportionality allows a significant discretion to the Judge but the same has to be guided by certain principles. In certain cases, the nature of culpability, the antecedents of the accused, the factum of age, the potentiality of the convict to become a criminal in future, capability of his reformation and to lead an acceptable life in the prevalent milieu, the effect - propensity to become a social threat or nuisance, and sometimes lapse of time in the commission of the crime and his conduct in the interregnum bearing in mind the nature of the offence, etc. etc."

Though in a case of rape, when an adult commits rape on a girl of tender age, deterrent punishment is called for, taking a lenient view is out of question. Once a person is convicted for offence of rape, he should be treated with heavy hands and undeserved indulgence or liberal attitude in not awarding adequate sentence is improper.

As per law laid down by Apex Court in State of U.P. vs. Babu Lal, AIR 2008 SC 582, the adequate and proper sentencing is to be made. I

UPHJS2018-III Edit

61. In case tried by the court of Sessions or a Chief Judicial Magistrate, the Court or such Magistrate, as the case may be, shall forward a copy of its or his finding and sentence, if any, to:
A. The Superintendent of Police in the area of whom the crime concerned was committed
B. The Police Station that conducted the investigation of the crime concerned
C. The High Court to which the trial Court is subordinate
D. The District Magistrate within whose local jurisdiction the trial is held

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-II Edit

87. In cases tried by the Court of Sessions or a Chief Judicial Magistrate, the Court or such Magistrate, as the case may be, "shall forward a copy of its or his finding and sentence, if any, to :
(a) The Superintendent of Police in the area of whom the crime concerned was committed
(b) The Police Station that conducted the investigation of the crime concerned
(c) The High Court to which the trial Court is subordinate
(d) The District Magistrate within whose local jurisdiction the trial is held

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-II Edit

  1. Write a judgment on the following facts after mentioning bare necessary facts and presuming that necessary witnesses have been examined by the prosecution.
    The accused Dr. Ramesh got married to Dr. Vimla, the deceased, on 29-10-1993. Both of them being qualified doctors, were working in King George Medical College Hospital, Lucknow (hereinafter referred to as “KGMC”). The relationship between the husband and wife became strained and they have been living separately since June 1994. As per the accused, a petition for divorce by mutual was filed on 20-2-1996.
    On 9-3-1996 the accused handed over a set of bloodstained clothes to Dr. Pawar, the Medical Superintendent, stating that when he came to his room that day, the same were found therein. Dr. Pawar, informed the police about the said incident on the same date.
    Dr. Vimla, wife of the accused, had informed her mother, Smt. Victoria, who was living in Rampur, by way of a telephone call on 6-3-1996, that she would visit her on 8-3-1996. However, she did not reach Rampur on 8-3-1996. Victoria, then came to Lucknow on 10-3-1996, and found that her daughter was missing. Smt. Victoria then lodged F.I.R. No. 16 of 1996 on 10-3-1996, at 9.40 p.m. Wherein being the complainant, she expressed her apprehension that the accused herein had abducted her daughter with the intention of killing her.
    In the meantime, Dr. Namrata, one of residents of the hostel in which deceased resided, also informed Dr. Pawar, Medical Superintendent that the deceased had in fact been missing from the hostel since 9-3-1996. After an enquiry it came to light that the deceased was on leave from 9-3-1996 to 16-3-1996.
    Dilip Yadav, ASI, took up the investigation of the case and went to the accused’s hostel, however, his Room No. 2010, was found to be locked. A police party searched for the accused, among several other places, in the house of Mr. Rana, one of his relatives, but he could not be traced/found anywhere. Dr. Pawar handed over the bloodstained clothes given to him by the accused, to the IO.
    On 11-3-1996 Sunil Yadav, SHO, Police Station, Lucknow Kotwali received a wireless message at 9.00 a.m., from the police chowki at Chinhat, which is about 17 km. away from the main city, informing
    him that the dead body of a female had been found, lying in the bushes, near the main road. The Investigating Officer took Victoria with him, while accompanied by other police personnel, and recovered the body of the deceased from the said place. Victoria identified it to be the dead body of Dr. Vimla. Immediately after the recovery of the dead body, Sunil Yadav, visited the room of the accused in the hostel and conducted a thorough search of the same, in the presence of Dr. Pawar, Medical Superintendent.
    The post-mortem of the deceased was conducted by a Medical Board consisting of three doctors, including Dr. A.V. Sinha, on 11-3-1996. He opined that the deceased had died by way of strangulation and a corresponding ligature mark was found on her neck. She also had several grievous injuries to her head.
    On 11-3-1996, the Investigating Officer came to know, in the course of interrogation, that the accused had used the car of one Dr. Dipali, and that a bloodstained mat was lying in the dicky of the said car. The police hence took possession of the said car and mat, and sent the mat for preparation of an FSL report.
    The accused was arrested on 11-3-1996, and his room in the hostel was searched yet again. Bloodstained earth from the floor of the room came to be collected. A pair or bloodstained while V-shaped hawai chappals were also found there. Photographs of the said room were also taken. During interrogation, the accused made a disclosure statement on 13-3-1996 to the effect that he would be able to help in the recovery of some relevant material from a place where he had hidden it. The accused then led the police party to a place behind Old Jail, Lucknow. From there, after removing some garbage, etc. one bloodstained gunny bag, a bloodstained dumb-bell and one bloodstained tie, were recovered.
    The said recovered articles along with the clothes, etc. found on the body of the deceased at the time of the post-mortem, and the bloodstained clothes given by the accused to Dr. B. Pawar were sent for FSL report. The FSL and serological report revealed that all the articles recovered by the police during investigation, contained human blood, with the sole exception of the mat found in the dicky of the car. The police completed the investigation of the case and submitted a charge-sheet against the accused. The accused thus charged, but as he pleaded not guilty, he claimed trial, write a judgment in a Session Case. 20

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2014 Edit


8. Write a judgment on the following facts after mentioning bare necessary facts and presuming that necessary witnesses have been examined by the prosecution.
The accused Dr. Ramesh got married to Dr. Vimla, the deceased, on 29-10-1993. Both of them being qualified doctors, were working in King George Medical College Hospital, Lucknow (hereinafter referred to as “KGMC”). The relationship between the husband and wife became strained and they have been living separately since June 1994. As per the accused, a petition for divorce by mutual was filed on 20-2-1996.
On 9-3-1996 the accused handed over a set of bloodstained clothes to Dr. Pawar, the Medical Superintendent, stating that when he came to his room that day, the same were found therein. Dr. Pawar, informed the police about the said incident on the same date.
Dr. Vimla, wife of the accused, had informed her mother, Smt. Victoria, who was living in Rampur, by way of a telephone call on 6-3-1996, that she would visit her on 8-3-1996. However, she did not reach Rampur on 8-3-1996. Victoria, then came to Lucknow on 10-3-1996, and found that her daughter was missing. Smt. Victoria then lodged F.I.R. No. 16 of 1996 on 10-3-1996, at 9.40 p.m. Wherein being the complainant, she expressed her apprehension that the accused herein had abducted her daughter with the intention of killing her.
In the meantime, Dr. Namrata, one of residents of the hostel in which deceased resided, also informed Dr. Pawar, Medical Superintendent that the deceased had in fact been missing from the hostel since 9-3-1996. After an enquiry it came to light that the deceased was on leave from 9-3-1996 to 16-3-1996.
Dilip Yadav, ASI, took up the investigation of the case and went to the accused’s hostel, however, his Room No. 2010, was found to be locked. A police party searched for the accused, among several other places, in the house of Mr. Rana, one of his relatives, but he could not be traced/found anywhere. Dr. Pawar handed over the bloodstained clothes given to him by the accused, to the IO.
On 11-3-1996 Sunil Yadav, SHO, Police Station, Lucknow Kotwali received a wireless message at 9.00 a.m., from the police chowki at Chinhat, which is about 17 km. away from the main city, informing
him that the dead body of a female had been found, lying in the bushes, near the main road. The Investigating Officer took Victoria with him, while accompanied by other police personnel, and recovered the body of the deceased from the said place. Victoria identified it to be the dead body of Dr. Vimla. Immediately after the recovery of the dead body, Sunil Yadav, visited the room of the accused in the hostel and conducted a thorough search of the same, in the presence of Dr. Pawar, Medical Superintendent.
The post-mortem of the deceased was conducted by a Medical Board consisting of three doctors, including Dr. A.V. Sinha, on 11-3-1996. He opined that the deceased had died by way of strangulation and a corresponding ligature mark was found on her neck. She also had several grievous injuries to her head.
On 11-3-1996, the Investigating Officer came to know, in the course of interrogation, that the accused had used the car of one Dr. Dipali, and that a bloodstained mat was lying in the dicky of the said car. The police hence took possession of the said car and mat, and sent the mat for preparation of an FSL report.
The accused was arrested on 11-3-1996, and his room in the hostel was searched yet again. Bloodstained earth from the floor of the room came to be collected. A pair or bloodstained while V-shaped hawai chappals were also found there. Photographs of the said room were also taken. During interrogation, the accused made a disclosure statement on 13-3-1996 to the effect that he would be able to help in the recovery of some relevant material from a place where he had hidden it. The accused then led the police party to a place behind Old Jail, Lucknow. From there, after removing some garbage, etc. one bloodstained gunny bag, a bloodstained dumb-bell and one bloodstained tie, were recovered.
The said recovered articles along with the clothes, etc. found on the body of the deceased at the time of the post-mortem, and the bloodstained clothes given by the accused to Dr. B. Pawar were sent for FSL report. The FSL and serological report revealed that all the articles recovered by the police during investigation, contained human blood, with the sole exception of the mat found in the dicky of the car. The police completed the investigation of the case and submitted a charge-sheet against the accused. The accused thus charged, but as he pleaded not guilty, he claimed trial, write a judgment in a Session Case. 20



Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2014 Edit


2. Write a judgment on the following facts after mentioning bare necessary facts and presuming that necessary witnesses have been examined by the prosecution.
Mohan, the deceased was married to Meera, the sister of Vasudeo. Vasudeo and his father Bharat were living in a Railway quarter at Varanasi. Mohan’s sister was married to one Bheem, who was also living in another Railway quarter nearby. Mohan had been living for sometime with his father-in-law. They did not, however, pull on well together and Mohan shifted to the house of Bheem. Mohan’s wife, Meera, had continued to live with her father as she was unwilling to go with Mohan. Her father Bharat and brother Vasudeo sided with her and refused to let her go with Mohan. Mohan also suspected that she had been carrying on with one Sachin who used to visit Bharat’s quarter. Consequently, Mohan was keen to take away his wife, the more so as he had got a job in the local department some months before and wanted to live an independent life.
On 11th June, 2011, there was some quarrel between Vasudeo and Mohan about Meera; but nothing untoward happened then and Vasudeo went back to his quarter and Mohan went away to Bheem’s quarter. Mohan asked Bheem’s sons to help him in bringing back his wife. Bheem also arrived and then all four of them went to Bharat’s quarter to bring back the girl at about 10.00 p.m. on 11th June. On reaching the place, Bheem and his two sons stood outside while Mohan went in. In the meantime. Bharat came out and was asked by Bheem to let Meera go with her husband. Bharat was not agreeable to it and asked Bheem not to interfere in other people’s affairs. While Bharat and Bhaurao were talking, Mohan came out of the quarter dragging his reluctant wife behind him. Meera caught hold of the door as she was being taken out and a tug-of-war followed between her and Mohan. Vasudeo was also there and shouted to his father that Mohan was adamant. Bharat, thereupon replied that if Mohan was adamant he should be beaten. On this Vasudeo took out a knife from his packet and stabbed Mohan once. The knife penetrated into the heart and Mohan fell down senseless. Steps were taken to revive Mohan but without success. Thereupon, Mohan was taken to the hospital by Bharat, Vasudeo, Bheem and his sons and some others, but Mohan died by the time they reached the hospital.
After completion of investigation, on the report lodged by Bheem, Vasudeo and Bharat were prosecuted for having committed murder of deceased Mohan. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


5. (a) Accused Raja Ram husband of deceased and Sita Ram father-in-law of the deceased aged 70 years have been held guilty for offences under Sections 304-B, 498-A, IPC and Section 4 of Dowry Prohibition Act by the Court of Additional Sessions Judge, - Allahabad on 22-12-2010.
Pass an order convicting the accused persons under the said sections and thereafter pass appropriate sentence, presuming that arguments on point of sentence have been heard by you. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXVIII SUBMISSION OF DEATH SENTENCES FOR CONFIRMATION

---CHAPTER XXIX APPEALS

Edit

Duty of the High Court in Appeals against Conviction

 

More...

374. Appeals from convictions. (1) Any person convicted on a trial held by a High Court in its extraordinary original criminal jurisdiction may appeal to the Supreme Court.

(2) Any person convicted on a trial held by a Sessions Judge or an Additional Sessions Judge or on a trial held by any other court in which a sentence of imprisonment for more than seven years [has been passed against him or against any other person convicted at the same trial], may appeal to the High Court.

(3) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2), any person, -

(a) convicted on a trial held by a Metropolitan Magistrate or Assistant Sessions Judge or Magistrate of the first class, or of the second class, or

(b) sentenced under Section 325, or

(c) in respect of whom an order has been made or a sentence has been passed under Section 360 by any Magistrate, may appeal to the Court of Session.

[(4) When an appeal has been filed against a sentence passed under section 376, section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code, the appeal shall be disposed of within a period of six months from the date of filing of such appeal]

Ishvarbhai Fuljibhai Patni Vs. State of Gujarat [1995 Supreme Court Cases (Crl) 222].

Para-4 of the judgment reads as under:

"4. Since, the High Court was dealing with the appeal in exercise of its appellate jurisdiction, against conviction and sentence of life imprisonment, it was required to consider and discuss the evidence and deal with the arguments raised at the bar. Let alone, any discussion of the evidence, we do not find that the High Court even cared to notice the evidence led in the case. None of the arguments of the learned counsel for the appellant have been noticed, much less considered and discussed. The judgment is cryptic and we are at loss to understand as to what prevailed with the High Court to uphold the conviction and sentence of the appellant. On a plain requirement of justice, the High Court while dealing with a first appeal against conviction and sentence is expected to, howsoever briefly depending upon the facts of the case, consider and discuss the evidence and deal with the submissions raised at the bar. If it fails to do so, it apparently fails in the discharge of one of its essential jurisdiction under its appellate powers. In view of the infirmities pointed out by us, the judgment under appeal cannot be sustained.

Lal Mandi, Appellant v. State of West Bengal, Respondent [1995 CRI.L.J.2659 (Supreme Court), 2659],

Hon. Apex Court in para-5 of the report has given caution to the High Court reminding its duty in the matter of hearing of appeal against conviction. It would be gainful to reproduce the observation made in para-5 of the report, extracted below:

"5. To say the least, the approach of the High Court is totally fallacious. In an appeal against conviction, the Appellate Court has the duty to itself appreciate the evidence on the record and if two views are possible on the appraisal of the evidence, the benefit of reasonable doubt has to be given to an accused. It is not correct to suggest that the "Appellate Court cannot legally interfere with" the order of conviction where the trial court has found the evidence as reliable and that it cannot substitute the findings of the Sessions Judge by its own, if it arrives at a different conclusion on reassessment of the evidence. The observation made in Tota Singh's case, which was an appeal against acquittal, have been misunderstood and mechanically applied. Though, the powers of an appellate court, while dealing with an appeal against acquittal and an appeal against conviction are equally wide but the considerations which weigh with it while dealing with an appeal against an order of acquittal and in an appeal against conviction are distinct and separate. The presumption of innocence of accused which gets strengthened on his acquittal is not available on his conviction. An appellate court may give every reasonable weight to the conclusions arrived at by the trial court but it must be remembered that an appellate court is duty bound, in the same way as the trial court, to test the evidence extrinsically as well as intrinsically and to consider as thoroughly as the trial court, all the circumstances available on the record so as to arrive at an independent finding regarding guilt or innocence of the convict. An Appellate Court fails in the discharge of one of its essential duties, if it fails to itself appreciate the evidence on the record and arrive at an independent finding based on the appraisal of such evidence."

Edit

Who has the burden of proof in criminal appeal that the trial court judgment is wrong?

More...

Apex Court in Narbada Prasad vs Chhagan Lal And Ors AIR 1969 SC 393, has held that in an appeal the burden is on the appellant to prove how the judgment under appeal is wrong? He must show where the assessment has gone wrong?

In criminal trial Apex Court in Kali Ram vs State Of Himachal Pradesh AIR 1973 SC 2773, has propounded that the onus is upon the prosecution to prove the different ingredients of the offence and unless it discharges that onus, the prosecution cannot succeed.

In Partap vs The State of U.P. AIR 1976 SC 966, Apex Court has held that prosecution has to prove case beyond all reasonable doubt whereas accused is to prove only establishing preponderance of probabilities.

Though Apex Court in Shankarlal Gyarasilal Dixit vs State Of Maharashtra AIR 1981 SC 765 has propounded that feasibility of defence does not shape prosecution case and suspicion how so strong cannot take place of proof.

UPHJS2012 Edit

69. Under Section 372 of Cr.P.C. a victim-
(A) can file an appeal against the order of acquittal
(B) can file an appeal only after obtaining leave from the appellate court
(C) has no right to file an appeal
(D) should approach the District Magistrate and Public Prosecutor for filing an appeal.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2009 Edit

97. When can a trial court release an accused on bail under Section 389(3) of Cr.P.C. after conviction?
(A) Where accused is on bail and imprisonment is not exceeding 3 years
(B) Where accused is on bail and imprisonment is not exceeding 5 years
(C) Where accused is on bail and imprisonment is not exceeding 7 years
(D) Where offence is exclusively bailable whether accused is on bail or not

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

BIHAR HJS 2016 Edit

53. For the purpose of appeal by a convicted person, the aggregate of consecutive sentences shall be deemed to be a single sentence is

(a) true

(b) false

(c) partly true

(d) none of the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2016 Edit


2. (b). An application under section 12 of the Protection of Women From Domestic Violence Act, 2005 was moved by wife-complainant with the following prayers:
(A) to provide protection to the life and limb of the complainant from the respondents;
(B) to grant monthly maintenance of Rs. 5,000/- to the complainant and her children;
(C) to grant such other relief or reliefs as the Hon’ble Court deems fit
and proper in the circumstances of the case.

One year thereafter an amendment application was moved by the wife-applicant, substituting the prayer quoted hereinabove with the following prayers
(a) To provide protection to life and limb of the complainant from the respondent.
(b) To grant monthly maintenance of Rs. 15,000/- to the complainant and her children.
(c) Direct the respondent to return the Stridhana amount of Rs. 3,00,000/-; 15 sovereigns of gold ornaments and other gifts and cash presented to respondent by the complainant and her parents.
(d) Direct the respondent to pay the compensation of Rs. 15 lakhs to the complainant for subjecting the complainant to physical and mental harassments.
(e) Direct the respondent to pay the cost of litigation to the tune of Rs. 25,000/- so far spent by the complainant pursuing her litigation.
(f) Direct the 1st respondent to provide separate residence if required on rent.
(g) Directing the respondent to return the original study certificates, medical certificates, deposits certificates and receipts etc.

On behalf of the husband-opposite party, application was opposed on the ground that under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 magistrate had no power to allow amendment to a complaint/ application.

On behalf of the wife-complainant, it was submitted that the proceedings were civil in nature and provisions of Code of Civil Procedure would be applicable. Thus the court had jurisdiction. The court allowed the application accepting the argument advanced on behalf of the wife-complainant.

Appeal is preferred against the order passed by the magistrate. Has the learned magistrate committed any error in rejecting the objection raised on behalf of the husband or not? Give reasons in support of your opinion and refer to the case law on this point. 20


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2012 Edit


6. (b) ‘A’ who was convicted by the trial Court and punished with imprisonment for two years, files an appeal against the conviction, but die during the pendency of the appeal. His son ‘B’ submits an application and prays that appeal be finally decided. Decide referring to relevant provisions. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


5. (b) ‘A’ is tried by a Court of Sessions and is convicted. The Court passes a sentence of imprisonment of 2 months and Rs. 200/- as fine. A wants to file an appeal in the High Court against his conviction. Advice. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


6. (b) What is the procedure for obtaining additional evidence by appellate Court under Section 391 of Cr.P.C. ? 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXX REFERENCE AND REVISION

UPHJS2012 Edit

58. A revision can be filed against an order passed by Sub Divisional Magistrate under Section 145(6) of Cr.P.C. in the court of-
(A) District Magistrate
(B) ADM (Administration)
(C) Chief Judicial Magistrate
(D) Sessions Judge.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

73. An order passed under Section 125 of Cr.RC. can be challenged by the unsuccessful party by filing a revision-
(A) only before Chief Judicial Magistrate
(B) only before Sessions Judge
(C) only before High Court
(D) Either before the Sessions Judge or High Court.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER XXXI TRANSFER OF CRIMINAL CASES

CG HJS 2018 Edit

  1. (B) Point out the distinction between “Power of Sessions Judge to transfer cases and appeals” and “withdrawal of cases and appeals by Session Judge”. [ 5 marks ]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXXII EXECUTION, SUSPENSION, REMISSION AND COMMUTATION OF SENTENCES
Edit

Chapter XXXII EXECUTION, SUSPENSION, REMISSION AND COMMUTATION OF SENTENCES

A. Death sentences

Section 413. Execution of order passed under Section 368

When in a case submitted to the High Court for the confirmation of a sentence of death, the Court of Session receives the order of confirmation or other order of the High Court thereon, it shall cause such order to be carried into effect by issuing a warrant or taking such other steps as may be necessary.

Corresponding Law: S. 381 of Act V of 1898.

Section 414. Execution of sentence of death passed by High Court

When a sentence of death is passed by the High Court in appeal or in revision, the Court of Session shall, on receiving the order of the High Court, cause the sentence to be carried into effect by issuing a warrant.

Section 415. Postponement of execution of sentence of death in case of appeal to Supreme Court

(1) Where a person is sentenced to death by the High Court and an appeal from its judgment lies to the Supreme Court under sub-clause (a) or sub-clause (b) of clause (1) of Article 134 of the Constitution, the High Court shall order the execution of the sentence to be postponed until the period allowed for preferring such appeal has expired, or, if an appeal is preferred within that period, until such appeal is disposed of.

(2) Where a sentence of death is passed or confirmed by the High Court, and the person sentenced makes an application to the High Court for the grant of a certificate under Article 132 or under sub-clause (c) of clause (1) of Article 134 of the Constitution, the High Court shall order the execution of the sentence to be postponed until such application is disposed of by the High Court, or if a certificate is granted on such application, until the period allowed for preferring an appeal to the Supreme Court on such certificate has expired.

(3) Where a sentence of death is passed or confirmed by the High Court, and the High Court is satisfied that the person sentenced intends to present a petition to the Supreme Court for the grant of special leave to appeal under Article 136 of the Constitution, the High Court shall order the execution of the sentence to be postponed for such period as it considers sufficient to enable him to present such petition.

Section 416. Postponement of capital sentence on pregnant woman

If a woman sentenced to death is found to be pregnant, the High Court shall 206[ *] commute the sentence to imprisonment for life.

Corresponding Law: S. 382 of Act V of 1898.

B. Imprisonment

Section 417. Power to appoint place of imprisonment

(1) Except when otherwise provided by any law for the time being in force, the State Government may direct in what place any person liable to be imprisoned or committed to custody under this Code shall be confined.

(2) If any person liable to be imprisoned or committed to custody under this Code is in confinement in a civil jail, the Court or Magistrate ordering the imprisonment or committal may direct that the person be removed to a criminal jail.

(3) When a person is removed to a criminal jail under sub-section (2), he shall, on being released therefrom, be sent back to the civil jail, unless either

(a) three years have elapsed since he was removed to the criminal jail, in which case he shall be deemed to have been released from the civil jail under Section 58 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), or Section 23 of the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920 (5 of 1920), as the case may be; or

(b) the Court which ordered his imprisonment in the civil jail has certified to the officer in charge of the criminal jail that he is entitled to be released under Section 58 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), or under Section 23 of the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920 (5 of 1920), as the case may be.

Corresponding Law: S. 541 of Act V of 1898.

Section 418. Execution of sentence of imprisonment

(1) Where the accused is sentenced to imprisonment for life or to imprisonment for a term in cases other than those provided for by Section 413, the Court passing the sentence shall forthwith forward a warrant to the jail or other place in which he is, or is to be, confined, and, unless the accused is already confined in such jail or other place, shall forward him to such jail or other place, with the warrant:

Provided that where the accused is sentenced to imprisonment till the rising of the Court, it shall not be necessary to prepare or forward a warrant to a jail, and the accused may be confined in such place as the Court may direct.

Corresponding Law: S. 383 of Act V of 1898.

(2) Where the accused is not present in Court when he is sentenced to such imprisonment as is mentioned in sub-section (1), the Court shall issue a warrant for his arrest for the purpose of forwarding him to the jail or other place in which he is to be confined; and in such case, the sentence shall commence on the date of his arrest.

Section 419. Direction of warrant for execution

Every warrant for the execution of a sentence of imprisonment shall be directed to the officer in charge of the jail or other place in which the prisoner is, or is to be, confined.

Corresponding Law: S. 384 of Act V of 1898.

Section 420. Warrant with whom to be lodged

When the prisoner is to be confined in a jail, the warrant shall be lodged with the jailor.

Corresponding Law: S. 385 of Act V of 1898.

C. Levy of fine

Section 421. Warrant for levy of fine

(1) When an offender has been sentenced to pay a fine, the Court passing the sentence may take action for the recovery of the fine in either or both of the following ways, that is to say, it may

(a) issue a warrant for the levy of the amount by attachment and sale of any movable property belonging to the offender;

(b) issue a warrant to the Collector of the district, authorising him to realise the amount as arrears of land revenue from the movable or immovable property, or both, of the defaulter:

Provided that, if the sentence directs that in default of payment of the fine, the offender shall be imprisoned, and if such offender has undergone the whole of such imprisonment in default, no Court shall issue such warrant unless, for special reasons to be recorded in writing, it considers it necessary so to do, or unless it has made an order for the payment of expenses or compensation out of the fine under Section 357.

(2) The State Government may make rules regulating the manner in which warrants under clause (a) of sub-section (1) are to be executed, and for the summary determination of any claims made by any person other than the offender in respect of any property attached in execution of such warrant.

(3) Where the Court issues a warrant to the Collector under clause (b) of sub-section (1), the Collector shall realise the amount in accordance with the law relating to recovery of arrears of land revenue, as if such warrant were a certificate issued under such law:

Provided that no such warrant shall be executed by the arrest or detention in prison of the offender.

Corresponding Law: S. 386 of Act V of 1898.

Section 422. Effect of such warrant

A warrant issued under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of Section 421 by any Court may be executed within the local jurisdiction of such Court, and it shall authorise the attachment and sale of any such property outside such jurisdiction, when it is endorsed by the District Magistrate within whose local jurisdiction such property is found.

Corresponding Law: S. 387 of Act V of 1898.

Section 423. Warrant for levy of fine issued by a Court in any territory to which this Code does not extend

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code or in any other law for the time being in force, when an offender has been sentenced to pay a fine by a Criminal Court in any territory to which this Code does not extend and the Court passing the sentence issues a warrant to the Collector of a district in the territories to which this Code extends, authorizing him to realize the amount as if it were an arrear of land revenue, such warrant shall be deemed to be a warrant issued under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of Section 421 by a Court in the territories to which this Code extends, and the provisions of sub-section (3) of the said section as to the execution of such warrant shall apply accordingly.

Corresponding Law: S. 387-A of Act V of 1898.

Section 424. Suspension of execution of sentence of imprisonment

(1) When an offender has been sentenced to fine only and to imprisonment in default of payment of the fine, and the fine is not paid forthwith, the Court may

(a) order that the fine shall be payable either in full on or before a date not more than thirty days from the date of the order, or in two or three instalments, of which the first shall be payable on or before a date not more than thirty days from the date of the order and the other or others at an interval or at intervals, as the case may be, of not more than thirty days;

(b) suspend the execution of the sentence of imprisonment and release the offender, on the execution by the offender of a bond, with or without sureties, as the Court thinks fit, conditioned for his appearance before the Court on the date or dates on or before which payment of the fine or the instalments thereof, as the case may be, is to be made; and if the amount of the fine or of any instalment, as the case may be, is not realized on or before the latest date on which it is payable under the order, the Court may direct the sentence of imprisonment to be carried into execution at once.

(2) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall be applicable also in any case in which an order for the payment of money has been made on non-recovery of which imprisonment may be awarded and the money is not paid forthwith; and, if the person against whom the order has been made, on being required to enter into a bond such as is referred to in that sub-section, fails to do so, the Court may at once pass sentence of imprisonment.

Corresponding Law: S. 388 of Act V of 1898.

D. General provisions regarding execution

Section 425. Who may issue warrant

Every warrant for the execution of a sentence may be issued either by the Judge or Magistrate who passed the sentence, or by his successor-in-office.

Corresponding Law: S. 389 of Act V of 1898.

Section 426. Sentence on escaped convict when to take effect

(1) When a sentence of death, imprisonment for life or fine is passed under this Code on an escaped convict, such sentence shall, subject to the provisions hereinbefore contained, take effect immediately.

(2) When a sentence of imprisonment for a term is passed under this Code on an escaped convict,

(a) if such sentence is severer in kind than the sentence which such convict was undergoing when he escaped, the new sentence shall take effect immediately;

(b) if such sentence is not severer in kind than the sentence which such convict was undergoing when he escaped, the new sentence shall take effect after he has suffered imprisonment for a further period equal to that which, at the time of his escape, remained unexpired of his former sentence.

(3) For the purposes of sub-section (2), a sentence of rigorous imprisonment shall be deemed to be severer in kind than a sentence of simple imprisonment.

Corresponding Law: S. 396 of Act V of 1898.

Section 427. Sentence on offender already sentenced for another offence

(1) When a person already undergoing a sentence of imprisonment is sentenced on a subsequent conviction to imprisonment or imprisonment for life, such imprisonment or imprisonment for life shall commence at the expiration of the imprisonment to which he has been previously sentenced, unless the Court directs that the subsequent sentence shall run concurrently with such previous sentence:

Provided that where a person who has been sentenced to imprisonment by an order under Section 122 in default of furnishing security is, whilst undergoing such sentence, sentenced to imprisonment for an offence committed prior to the making of such order, the latter sentence shall commence immediately.

(2) When a person already undergoing a sentence of imprisonment for life is sentenced on a subsequent conviction to imprisonment for a term or imprisonment for life, the subsequent sentence shall run concurrently with such previous sentence.

Corresponding Law: S. 397 of Act V of 1898.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Tamil Nadu. In Section 427 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, after sub-section (1), the following sub-section shall be inserted, namely:

(1-A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), when a person already undergoing a sentence of imprisonment is sentenced on a subsequent conviction to imprisonment under sub-section (2) of Section 380 of the Indian Penal Code (Central Act XLV of 1860), for an offence of theft of any idol or icon in any building used as a place of worship, such imprisonment shall commence at the expiration of the imprisonment to which he has been previously sentenced. . Vide T.N. Act 28 of 1993, S. 6 (dated 13-7-1993).

Section 428. Period of detention undergone by the accused to be set-off against the sentence of imprisonment

Where an accused person has, on conviction, been sentenced to imprisonment for a term 207[, not being imprisonment in default of payment of fine,] the period of detention, if any, undergone by him during the investigation, inquiry or trial of the same case and before the date of such conviction, shall be setoff against the term of imprisonment imposed on him on such conviction, and the liability of such person to undergo imprisonment on such conviction shall be restricted to the remainder, if any, of the term of imprisonment imposed on him:

208[Provided that in cases referred to in Section 433-A, such period of detention shall be set off against the period of fourteen years referred to in that section.]

Section 429. Saving

(1) Nothing in Section 426 or Section 427 shall be held to excuse any person from any part of the punishment to which he is liable upon his former or subsequent conviction.

(2) When an award of imprisonment in default of payment of a fine is annexed to a substantive sentence of imprisonment and the person undergoing the sentence is after its execution to undergo a further substantive sentence or further substantive sentences of imprisonment, effect shall not be given to the award of imprisonment in default of payment of the fine until the person has undergone the further sentence or sentences.

Corresponding Law: S. 398 of Act V of 1898.

Section 430. Return of warrant on execution of sentence

When a sentence has been fully executed, the officer executing it shall return the warrant to the Court from which it is issued, with an endorsement under his hand certifying the manner in which the sentence has been executed.

Corresponding Law: S. 400 of Act V of 1898.

Section 431. Money ordered to be paid recoverable as a fine

Any money (other than a fine) payable by virtue of any order made under this Code, and the method of recovery of which is not otherwise expressly provided for, shall be recoverable as if it were a fine:

Provided that Section 421 shall, in its application to an order under Section 359, by virtue of this section, be construed as if in the proviso to sub-section (1) of Section 421, after the words and figures under Section 357 , the words and figures or an order for payment of costs under Section 359 had been inserted.

Corresponding Law: S. 547 of Act V of 1898.

E. Suspension, remission and commutation of sentences

Section 432. Power to suspend or remit sentences

(1) When any person has been sentenced to punishment for an offence, the appropriate Government may, at any time, without conditions or upon any conditions which the person sentenced accepts, suspend the execution of his sentence or remit the whole or any part of the punishment to which he has been sentenced.

(2) Whenever an application is made to the appropriate Government for the suspension or remission of a sentence, the appropriate Government may require the presiding Judge of the Court before or by which the conviction was had or confirmed, to state his opinion as to whether the application should be granted or refused, together with his reasons for such opinion and also to forward with the statement of such opinion a certified copy of the record of the trial or of such record thereof as exists.

(3) If any condition on which a sentence has been suspended or remitted is, in the opinion of the appropriate Government, not fulfilled, the appropriate Government may cancel the suspension or remission, and thereupon the person in whose favor the sentence has been suspended or remitted may, if at large, be arrested by any police officer, without warrant and remanded to undergo the unexpired portion of the sentence.

(4) The condition on which a sentence is suspended or remitted under this section may be one to be fulfilled by the person in whose favour the sentence is suspended or remitted, or one independent of his will.

(5) The appropriate Government may, by general rules or special orders, give directions as to the suspension of sentences and the conditions on which petitions should be presented and dealt with:

Provided that in the case of any sentence (other than a sentence of fine) passed on a male person above the age of eighteen years, no such petition by the person sentenced or by any other person on his behalf shall be entertained, unless the person sentenced is in jail, and

(a) where such petition is made by the person sentenced, it is presented through the officer in charge of the jail; or

(b) where such petition is made by any other person, it contains a declaration that the person sentenced is in jail.

(6) The provisions of the above sub-sections shall also apply to any order passed by a Criminal Court under any section of this Code or of any other law which restricts the liberty of any person or imposes any liability upon him or his property.

Corresponding Law: S. 401 of Act V of 1898.

(7) In this section and in Section 433, the expression appropriate Government means,

(a) in cases where the sentence is for an offence against, or the order referred to in sub-section (6) is passed under, any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends, the Central Government;

(b) in other cases, the Government of the State within which the offender is sentenced or the said order is passed.

Corresponding Law: S. 402(3) of Act V of 1898.

Section 433. Power to commute sentence

The appropriate Government may, without the consent of the person sentenced, commute

(a) a sentence of death, for any other punishment provided by the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);

(b) a sentence of imprisonment for life, for imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years or for fine;

(c) a sentence of rigorous imprisonment, for simple imprisonment for any term to which that person might have been sentenced, or for fine;

(d) a sentence of simple imprisonment, for fine.

Corresponding Law: S. 402(1) of Act V of 1898.

209[433-A. Restriction on powers of remission or commutation in certain cases. Notwithstanding anything contained in Section 432, where a sentence of imprisonment for life is imposed on conviction of a person for an offence for which death is one of the punishments provided by law, or where a sentence of death imposed on a person has been commuted under Section 433 into one of imprisonment for life, such person shall not be released from prison unless he had served at least fourteen years of imprisonment.]

Notes on Clauses to 2005 Amendment The provision of Section 433-A adversely affects the reformation of lifer, whose case inspite of good conduct in jail cannot be referred to the Advisory Board for recommending his premature release to the State Government, unless he has completed 14 years of actual imprisonment. Proposed amendment to Section 428 is intended to provide that the period for which the life convict remained in detention during investigation, inquiry or trial shall be set off against the period of 14 years of actual imprisonment prescribed in Section 433-A.

Section 434. Concurrent power of Central Government in case of death sentences

The powers conferred by Sections 432 and 433 upon the State Government may, in the case of sentences of death, also be exercised by the Central Government.

Corresponding Law: S. 402-A of Act V of 1898.

Section 435. State Government to act after consultation with Central Government in certain cases

(1) The powers conferred by Sections 432 and 433 upon the State Government to remit or commute a sentence, in any case where the sentence is for an offence

(a) which was investigated by the Delhi Special Police Establishment constituted under the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946 (25 of 1946), or by any other agency empowered to make investigation into an offence under any Central Act other than this Code, or

(b) which involved the misappropriation or destruction of, or damage to, any property belonging to the Central Government, or

(c) which was committed by a person in the service of the Central Government while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty,

shall not be exercised by the State Government except after consultation with the Central Government.

NOTES: Here consultation means concurrence as held by Constitution bench of honorable Supreme Court in the case of Union of India v. Sriharan @murugan 2015.

(2) No order of suspension, remission or commutation of sentences passed by the State Government in relation to a person, who has been convicted of offences, some of which relate to matters to which the executive power of the Union extends, and who has been sentenced to separate terms of imprisonment which are to run concurrently, shall have effect unless an order for the suspension, remission or commutation, as the case may be, of such sentences has also been made by the Central Government in relation to the offences committed by such person with regard to matters to which the executive power of the Union extends.

UPHJS2018-II Edit

2. Under section 428 of Code of Criminal Procedure, which of the following period of detention undergone by the accused shall be set-off against the sentence of imprisonment in a case :
(a) period of detention undergone in default of payment of fine
(b) period of detention undergone during investigation and trial of that case
(c) period of detention undergone during investigation and trial of a similar case
(d) all the above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER XXXIII PROVISIONS AS TO BAIL AND BONDS
Edit

CHAPTER XXXIII

Provisions As To Bail And Bonds

436. In what cases bail to be taken.

(1) When any person other than a person accused of a non-bailable offence is arrested or detained without warrant by an officer in charge of a police station, or appears or is brought before a Court, and is prepared at any time while in the custody of such officer or at any stage of the proceeding before such Court to give bail, such person shall be released on bail :Provided that such officer or Court, if he or it thinks fit, [may, and shall, if such person is indigent and is unable to furnish surety, instead of taking bail] from such person, discharge him on his executing a bond without sureties for his appearance as hereinafter provided

:Provided further that nothing in this Section shall be deemed to affect the provisions of sub-Section (3) of Section 116 [or section 446-A].[Explanation.-Where a person is unable to give bail within a week of the date of his arrest, it shall be a sufficient ground for the officer or the Court to presume that he is an indigent person for the purposes of this proviso.]Provided further that nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect the provisions of sub-section (3) of Section 116, or Section 446-A. Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where a person has failed to comply with the conditions of the bail bond as regards the time and place of attendance, the Court may refuse to release him on bail, when on a subsequent occasion in the same case he appears before the Court or is brought in custody and any such refusal shall be without prejudice to the powers of the Court to call upon any person bound by such bond to pay the penalty thereof under Section 446.[

436-A. Maximum period for which an under trial prisoner can be detained.

Where a person has, during the period of investigation, inquiry or trial under this Code of an offence under any law (not being an offence for which the punishment of death has been specified as one of the punishments under that law) undergone detention for a period extending up to one-half of the maximum period of imprisonment specified for that offence under that law, he shall be released by the Court on his personal bond with or without sureties

:Provided that the Court may, after hearing the Public Prosecutor and for reasons to be recorded by it in writing, order the continued detention of such person for a period longer than one-half of the said period or release him on bail instead of the personal bond with or without sureties

:Provided further that no such person shall in any case be detained during the period of investigation, inquiry or trial for more than the maximum period of imprisonment provided for the said offence under that law.

Explanation.-In computing the period of detention under this Section for granting bail the period of detention passed due to delay in proceeding caused by the accused shall be excluded.]

437. When bail may be taken in case of non-bailable offence.

-[(1) When any person accused of, or suspected of, the commission of any non-bailable offence is arrested or detained without warrant by an officer in charge of a police station or appears or is brought before a Court other than the High Court or Court of Session, he may be released on bail, but -(i) such person shall not be so released if there appear reasonable grounds for believing that he has been guilty of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life;(ii) such person shall not be so released if such offence is a cognizable offence and he had been previously convicted of an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for seven years or more, or he had been previously convicted on two or more occasions of [a cognizable offence punishable with imprisonment for three years or more but not less than seven years]

:Provided that the Court may direct that a person referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) be released on bail if such person is under the age of sixteen years or is a woman or is sick or infirm

:Provided further that the Court may also direct that a person referred to in clause (ii) be released on bail if it is satisfied that it is just and proper so to do for any other special reason

:Provided also that the mere fact that an accused person may be required for being identified by witnesses during investigation shall not be sufficient ground for refusing to grant bail if he is otherwise entitled to be released on bail and gives an undertaking that he shall comply with such directions as may be given by the Court]. [Provided also that no person shall, if the offence alleged to have been committed by him is punishable with death, imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for seven years or more, be released on bail by the Court under this sub-Section without giving an opportunity of hearing to the Public Prosecutor.]

(2) If it appears to such officer or Court at any stage of the investigation, inquiry or trial, as the case may be, that there are no reasonable grounds for believing that the accused has committed a non-bailable offence, but that there are sufficient grounds for further inquiry into his guilt, [the accused shall subject to the provisions of Section 446-A and pending such inquiry, be released on bail], or, at the discretion of such officer or Court, on the execution by him of a bond without sureties for his appearance as hereinafter provided.

(3) When a person accused or suspected of the commission of an offence punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven years or more or of an offence under Chapter VI, Chapter XVI or Chapter XVII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or abetment of, or conspiracy or attempt to commit, any such offence, is released on bail under sub-section (1), the Court shall impose the conditions,-(a) that such person shall attend in accordance with the conditions of the bond executed under this Chapter,(b) that such person shall not commit an offence similar to the offence of which he is accused, or suspected, of the commission of which he is suspected, and(c) that such person shall not directly or indirectly make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer or tamper with the evidence,and may also impose, in the interests of justice, such other conditions as it considers necessary. An officer or a Court releasing any person on bail under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), shall record in writing his or its [reasons or special reasons] for so doing.(5) Any Court which has released a person on bail under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), may, if it considers it necessary so to do, direct that such person be arrested and commit him to custody.(6) If, in any case triable by a Magistrate, the trial of a person accused of any non-bailable offence is not concluded within a period of sixty days from the first date fixed for taking evidence in the case, such person shall, if he is in custody during the whole of the said period, be released on bail, to the satisfaction of the Magistrate, unless for reasons to be recorded in writing, the Magistrate otherwise directs.(7) If, at any time after the conclusion of the trial of a person accused of a non-bailable offence and before judgment is delivered, the Court is of opinion that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the accused is not guilty of any such offence, it shall release the accused, if he is in custody, on the execution by him of a bond without sureties for his appearance to hear judgment delivered.[

437-A. Bail to require accused to appear before next Appellate Court.

(1) Before conclusion of the trial and before disposal of the appeal, the Court trying the offence or the Appellate Court, as the case may be, shall require the accused to execute bail bonds with sureties, to appear before the higher Court as and when such Court issues notice in respect of any appeal or petition filed against the judgment of the respective Court and such bail bonds shall be in force for six months.(2) If such accused fails to appear, the bond stand forfeited and the procedure under Section 446 shall apply.]

438. Direction for grant of bail to person apprehending arrest.

[(1) Where any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or the Court of Session for a direction under this section that in the event of such arrest he shall be released on bail; and that Court may, after taking into consideration, inter alia, the following factors, namely:-(i) the nature and gravity of the accusation;(ii) the antecedents of the applicant including the fact as to whether he has previously undergone imprisonment on conviction by a Court in respect of any cognizable offence;(iii) the possibility of the applicant to flee from justice; and(iv) where the accusation has been made with the object of injuring or humiliating the applicant by having him so arrested, either reject the application forthwith or issue an interim order for the grant of anticipatory bail

:Provided that, where the High Court or, as the case may be, the Court of Session, has not passed any interim order under this sub-Section or has rejected the application for grant of anticipatory bail, it shall be open to an officer IN- charge of a police station to arrest, without warrant, the applicant on the basis of the accusation apprehended in such application.

(1-A) Where the Court grants an interim order under sub-Section (1), it shall forthwith cause a notice being not less than seven days notice, together with a copy of such order to be served on the Public Prosecutor and the Superintendent of Police, with a view to give the Public Prosecutor a reasonable opportunity of being heard when the application shall be finally heard by the Court.(1-B) The presence of the applicant seeking anticipatory bail shall be obligatory at the time of final hearing of the application and passing of final order by the Court, if on an application made to it by the Public Prosecutor, the Court considers such presence necessary in the interest of justice]. (2) When the High Court or the Court of Session makes a direction under sub-section (1), it may include such conditions in such directions in the light of the facts of the particular case, as it may think fit, including - (i) a condition that the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required;

(ii) a condition that the person shall not, directly or indirectly, make any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to any police officer;

(iii) a condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the Court;

(iv) such other condition as may be imposed under sub-section (3) of Section 437, as if the bail were granted under that section :

Provided that where such penalty is not paid and cannot be recovered in the manner aforesaid, the person so bound as surety shall be liable, by order of the Court ordering the recovery of the penalty, to imprisonment in civil jail for a term which may extend to six months. (3) If such person is thereafter arrested without warrant by an officer in charge of a police station on such accusation, and is prepared either at the time of arrest or at any time while in the custody of such officer to give bail, he shall be released on bail; and if a Magistrate taking cognizance of such offence decides that a warrant should issue in the first instance against that person, he shall issue a bailable warrant in conformity with the direction of the Court under sub-section (1). [(4) Nothing in this section shall apply to any case involving the arrest of any person on accusation of having committed an offence under sub-section (3) of section 376 or section 376AB or section 376DA or section 376DB of the Indian Penal Code.]

439. Special powers of High Court or Court of Session regarding bail.

(1) A High Court or Court of Session may direct - (a) that any person accused of an offence and in custody, be released on bail, and if the offence is of the nature specified in sub-section (3) of Section 437, may impose any condition which it considers necessary for the purposes mentioned in that sub-section;

(b) that any condition imposed by a Magistrate when releasing any person on bail be set aside or modified :

Provided that the High Court or the Court of Session shall, before granting bail to a person who is accused of an offence which is triable exclusively by the Court of Session or which, though not so triable, is punishable with imprisonment for life, give notice of the application for bail to the Public Prosecutor unless it is, for reasons to be recorded in writing, of opinion that it is not practicable to give such notice. [Provided further that the High Court or the Court of Session shall, before granting bail to a person who is accused of an offence triable under sub-section (3) of section 376 or section 376AB or section 376DA or section 376DB of the Indian Penal Code, give notice of the application for bail to the Public Prosecutor within a period of fifteen days from the date of receipt of the notice of such application.] [(1A) The presence of the informant or any person authorized by him shall be obligatory at the time of hearing of the application for bail to the person under sub-section (3) of section 376 or section 376AB or section 376DA or section 376DB of the Indian Penal Code.] (2) A High Court or Court of Session may direct that any person who has been released on bail under this Chapter be arrested and commit him to custody.

440. Amount of bond and reduction thereof.

(1) The amount of every bond executed under this Chapter shall be fixed with due regard to the circumstances of the case and shall not be excessive. (2) The High Court or Court of Session may direct that the bail required by a police officer or Magistrate be reduced.

441. Bond of accused and sureties.

(1) Before any person is released on bail or released on his own bond, a bond for such sum of money as the police officer or Court, as the case may be, thinks sufficient shall be executed by such person, and, when he is released on bail, by one or more sufficient sureties conditioned that such person shall attend at the time and place mentioned in the bond, and shall continue so to attend until otherwise directed by the police officer or Court, as the case may be. (2) Where any condition is imposed for the release of any person on bail, the bond shall also contain that condition. (3) If the case so requires, the bond shall also bind the person released on bail to appear when called upon at the High Court, Court of Session or other Court to answer the charge. (4) For the purpose of determining whether the sureties are fit or sufficient, the Court may accept affidavits in proof of the facts contained therein relating to the sufficiency or fitness of the sureties, or, if it considers necessary, may either hold an inquiry itself or cause an inquiry to be made by a Magistrate subordinate to the Court, as to such sufficiency or fitness. [

441-A. Declaration by sureties.

Every person standing surety to an accused person for his release on bail, shall make a declaration before the Court as to the number of persons to whom he has stood surety including the accused, giving therein all the relevant particulars.]

442. Discharge from custody.

(1) As soon as the bond has been executed, the person for whose appearance it has been executed shall be released; and, when he is in jail, the Court admitting him to bail shall issue an order of release to the officer in charge of the jail, and such officer on receipt of the orders shall release him. (2) Nothing in this section, Section 436 or Section 437 shall be deemed to require the release of any person liable to be detained for some matter other than that in respect of which the bond was executed.

443. Power to order sufficient bail when that first taken is insufficient.

If, through mistake, fraud, or otherwise, insufficient sureties have been accepted, of if they afterwards, become insufficient, the Court may issue a warrant of arrest directing that the person released on bail be brought before it and may order him to find sufficient sureties, and on his failing so to do, may commit him to jail.

444. Discharge of sureties.

(1) All or any sureties for the attendance and appearance of a person released on bail may at any time apply to a Magistrate to discharge the bond, either wholly or so far as relates to the applicants. (2) On such application being made, the Magistrate shall issue his warrant of arrest directing that the person so released be brought before him. (3) On the appearance of such person pursuant to the warrant, or on his voluntary surrender, the Magistrate shall direct the bond to be discharged either wholly or so far as relates to the applicants, and shall call upon such person to find other sufficient sureties, and, if he fails to do so, may commit him to jail.

445. Deposit instead of recognizance.

When any person is required by any Court or officer to execute a bond with or without sureties, such Court or officer may, except in the case of a bond for good behavior, permit him to deposit a sum of money or Government promissory notes to such amount as the Court or officer may fix in lieu of executing such bond.

446. Procedure when bond has been forfeited.

(1) Where a bond under this Code is for appearance, or for production of property, before a Court and it is proved to the satisfaction of that Court, or of any Court to which the case has subsequently been transferred, that the bond has been forfeited, or where, in respect of any other bond under this Code, it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court by which the bond was taken, or of any Court to which the case has subsequently been transferred, or of the Court of any Magistrate of the first class, that the bond has been forfeited, the Court shall record the grounds of such proof, and may call upon any person bound by such bond to pay the penalty thereof or to show cause why it should not be paid. Explanation. - A condition in a bond for appearance, or for production of property, before a Court shall be construed as including a condition for appearance, or as the case may be, for production of property, before any Court to which the case may subsequently be transferred. (2) If sufficient cause is not shown and the penalty is not paid, the Court may proceed to recover the same as if such penalty were a fine imposed by it under this Code : [Provided that where such penalty is not paid and cannot be recovered in the manner aforesaid, the person so bound as surety shall be liable, by order of the Court ordering the recovery of the penalty, to imprisonment in Civil Jail for a term which may extend to six months]. (3) The Court may, [after recording its reasons for doing so], remit any portion of the penalty mentioned and enforce payment in part only. (4) Where a surety to a bond dies before the bond is forfeited, his estate shall be discharged from all liability in respect of the bond. (5) Where any person who has furnished security under Section 106 or Section 117 or Section 360 is convicted of an offence the commission of which constitutes a breach of the conditions of his bond, or of a bond executed in lieu of his bond under Section 448, a certified copy of the judgment of the Court by which he was convicted of such offence may be used as evidence in proceedings under this section against his surety or sureties, and, if such certified copy is so used, the Court shall presume that such offence was committed by him unless the contrary is proved.

[446-A. Cancellation of bond and bail-bond.

Without prejudice to the provisions of Section 446, where a bond under this Code is for appearance of a person in a case and it is forfeited for breach of a condition -(a) the bond executed by such person as well as the bond, if any, executed by one or more of his sureties in that case shall stand cancelled; and(b) thereafter no such person shall be released only on his own bond in that case, if the Police Officer or the Court, as the case may be, for appearance before whom the bond was executed, is satisfied that there was no sufficient cause for the failure of the person bound by the bond to comply with its condition :Provided that subject to any other provision of this Code he may be released in that case upon the execution of a fresh personal bond for such sum of money and bond by one or more of such sureties as the Police Officer or the Court, as the case may be, thinks sufficient].

447. Procedure in case of insolvency or death of surety or when a bond is forfeited.

When any surety to a bond under this Code becomes insolvent or dies, or when any bond is forfeited under the provisions of Section 446, the Court by whose order such bond was taken, or a Magistrate of the first class may order the person from whom such security was demanded to furnish fresh security in accordance with the directions of the original order, and if such security is not furnished, such Court or Magistrate may proceed as if there had been a default in complying with such original order.

448. Bond required from minor.

When the person required by any Court, or officer to execute a bond is a minor, such Court or officer may, accept in lieu thereof, a bond executed by a surety or sureties only.

449. Appeal from orders under section 446.

All orders passed under section 446, shall be appealable - (i) in the case of an order made by a Magistrate, to the Sessions Judge;

(ii) in the case of an order made by a Court of Session, to the Court to which an appeal lies from an order made by such Court.

450. Power to direct levy of amount due on certain recognizances.

The High Court or Court of Session may direct any Magistrate to levy the amount due on a bond for appearance or attendance at such High Court or Court of Session.

UPHJS2018-II Edit

13. Section 436-A of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, provides for grant of bail to an accused pending trial if:

(a) he has undergone detention for one-fourth period of imprisonment specified for the offence for which he is being tried

(b) he has undergone detention for one-third period of imprisonment specified for the offence for which he is being tried

(c) he has undergone detention for one-half period of imprisonment specified for the offence for which he is being tried

(d) (a) and (b) above

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-I Edit

73. In a bailable offence the bail is granted as matter of right :
(a) by the police officer
(b) by the court
(c) both by the police officer & the court
(d) cither (a) or (b)

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS 2020 Edit

3. An application for anticipatory bail under section 438 Cr .P.C can be considered by the Courts in the State of U.P with respect to

(A) An offence under section 302 I.P.C
(B) An offence under section 307 I.P.C
(C) An offence punishable under section 3 of U.P Gangster and Anti-Social Activities (Prevention) Act, 1986
(D) An offence punishable under section 3 of Official Secrets Act 1923

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-II Edit

  1. An FIR has been lodged at Police Station Civil Lines, Prayagraj alleging commission of offences by a under section 419, 420, 467, 468 Indian Penal Code. A prefers an application under section 438 Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 before the Sessions Court having territorial jurisdiction to have direction for grant of bail apprehending the arrest.
    Draw an order on the application aforesaid by keeping in mind all possible primary objections those can be taken by the opposite party. [15]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009 Edit


7. (b) An accused is arrested in a bailable offence and he is released on bail. During trial, he absconds and non-bailable warrants are issued against him. The police arrests him and produces him before the Court.

The defence counsel pleads for his release on bail under Section 436 (1), Cr. P.C. which provides that a person accused of a bailable offence shall be released on bail. Can the Court, in such circumstances, refuse to release him on bail? Give reasons briefly. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


7. (a) Explain the broad principles regarding grant of bail in criminal cases. Can a bail be demanded as a matter of right ? 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009SPL Edit


7. (b) Under what circumstances a bail can be cancelled ? Illustrate your answer. 10


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
CG HJS 2018 Edit

  1. (B) Describe surety’s liability, also explain under what condition surety is discharged and when it is not discharged. [ 4 marks]

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXXIV DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY

---CHAPTER XXXV IRREGULAR PROCEEDINGS

UPHJS2018-III Edit

44. Which of the following irregularities of a Magistrate, not empowered by law to do so, vitiates the proceedings?
A. To hold inquiry under Section 176 Code of Criminal Procedure
B. To make over a case under sub-Section (2) of Section 192 Code of Criminal Procedure
C. To take cognizance of an offence under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of Section 190 Code of Criminal Procedure
D. To tender pardon to accomplice under Section 306 Code of Criminal Procedure

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2018-II Edit

12. Which of the following irregularities of a Magistrate, not empowered by law to do so, vitiates the proceedings?

(a) To hold inquiry under section 176 Code of Criminal Procedure

(b) To make over a case under sub-section (2) of Section 192 Code of Criminal
Procedure

(c) To take cognizance of an offence under clause (c) _of, sub-section (1) of
Section 190 of the Code of Criminal Procedure

(d) To tender pardon to accomplice under section 306 of "the Code of Criminal
Procedure

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2016 Edit


5(b). What is the impact of the following in a criminal trial:—
(a) Prosecution witness is examined after closure of defence evidence 5
(b) Evidence of prosecution is closed without giving full opportunity of cross-examination. 5
(c) Charge framed does not disclose the exact offence committed. 5
(d) F.I.R. Is registered at a police station in respect of an offence committed outside its territorial jurisdiction. 5




Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer
UPHJS2009 Edit


4. What shall be the effect of following defects in a criminal trial? Explain referring to relevant provisions of Criminal Procedure Code.
(a) The charge is defective.
(b) The prosecution evidence is closed after two or three opportunities leaving few important witnesses unexamined.
(c) Judgment of conviction and sentence delivered in absence of accused.
(d) After closure of defence evidence, certain important prosecution
witnesses are summoned for being examined. 20


Answer

Please Login / Register to view

Upload your answer

---CHAPTER XXXVI LIMITATION FOR TAKING COGNIZANCE OF CERTAIN OFFENCES

UPHJS2012 Edit

60. If an offence is punishable with fine only then the limitation for taking cognizance will be-
(A) 6 months
(B) 1 year
(C) 2 years
(D) 3 years.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view

UPHJS2012 Edit

72. For an offence punishable with three years imprisonment the limitation prescribed under Cr.P.C. is-
(A) 6 months
(B) 1 year
(C) 3 years
(D) None of the above.

Answer

Please Login / Register to view


---CHAPTER XXXVII MISCELLANEOUS

On this Page

CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY SS. 1-5
CHAPTER II CONSTITUTION OF CRIMINAL COURTS AND OFFICES SS. 6-25-A
CHAPTER III POWER OF COURTS SS.26-35
CHAPTER IV A and B
CHAPTER V ARREST OF PERSONS
CHAPTER VI PROCESSES TO COMPEL APPEARANCE
CHAPTER VII PROCESSES TO COMPEL THE PRODUCTION OF THINGS
CHAPTER VIIA RECIPROCAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR ASSISTANCE IN CERTAIN MATTERS AND PROCEDURE FOR ATTACHMENT AND FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY
CHAPTER VIII SECURITY FOR KEEPING THE PEACE AND FOR GOOD BEHAVIOUR
CHAPTER IX ORDER FOR MAINTENANCE OF WIVES, CHILDREN AND PARENTS
CHAPTER X MAINTENANCE OF PUBLIC ORDER AND TRANQUILLITY
CHAPTER XI PREVENTIVE ACTION OF THE POLICE
CHAPTER XII INFORMATION TO THE POLICE AND THEIR POWERS TO INVESTIGATE
CHAPTER XIII JURISDICTION OF THE CRIMINAL COURTS IN INQUIRIES AND TRIALS
CHAPTER XIV CONDITIONS REQUISITE FOR INITIATION OF PROCEEDINGS
CHAPTER XV COMPLAINTS TO MAGISTRATES
CHAPTER XVI COMMENCEMENT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE MAGISTRATES
CHAPTER XVII THE CHARGE
CHAPTER XVIII TRIAL BEFORE A COURT OF SESSION
CHAPTER XIX TRIAL OF WARRANT CASES BY MAGISTRATES
CHAPTER XX TRIAL OF SUMMONS CASES BY MAGISTRATES
CHAPTER XXI SUMMARY TRIALS
CHAPTER XXIA PLEA BARGAINING
CHAPTER XXII ATTENDANCE OF PERSONS CONFINED OR DETAINED IN PRISONS
CHAPTER XXIII EVIDENCE IN INQUIRIES AND TRIALS
CHAPTER XXIV GENERAL PROVISIONS AS TO INQUIRIES AND TRIALS Ss. 300 - 327
--- Section 319
CHAPTER XXV PROVISIONS AS TO ACCUSED PERSONS OF UNSOUND MIND
CHAPTER XXVI PROVISIONS AS TO OFFENCES AFFECTING THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
CHAPTER XXVII THE JUDGMENT
CHAPTER XXVIII SUBMISSION OF DEATH SENTENCES FOR CONFIRMATION
CHAPTER XXIX APPEALS
CHAPTER XXX REFERENCE AND REVISION
CHAPTER XXXI TRANSFER OF CRIMINAL CASES
CHAPTER XXXII EXECUTION, SUSPENSION, REMISSION AND COMMUTATION OF SENTENCES
CHAPTER XXXIII PROVISIONS AS TO BAIL AND BONDS
CHAPTER XXXIV DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY
CHAPTER XXXV IRREGULAR PROCEEDINGS
CHAPTER XXXVI LIMITATION FOR TAKING COGNIZANCE OF CERTAIN OFFENCES
CHAPTER XXXVII MISCELLANEOUS