INDIAN PENAL CODE
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THE INDIAN PENAL CODE

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1. Title and extent of operation of the Code.
2. Punishment of offences committed within India.
3. Punishment of offences committed beyond, but which by law may be tried within, India.
4. Extension of Code to extra-territorial offences.
5. Certain laws not to be affected by this Act.

CHAPTER II GENERAL EXPLANATIONS

6. Definitions in the Code to be understood subject to exceptions.
7. Sense of expression once explained.
8. Gender.
9. Number.
10. “Man”, “Woman”.
11. “Person”.
12. “Public”.
13. “Queen”.
14. “Servant of Government”.
15. “British India”.
16. “Government of India”.
17. “Government”.
18. “India”.
19. “Judge”.
20. “Court of Justice”.
21. “Public servant”.
22. “Movable property”.
23. “Wrongful gain”.
24. “Dishonestly”.
25. “Fraudulently”.
26. “Reason to believe”.
27. Property in possession of wife, clerk or servant.
28. “Counterfeit”.
29. “Document”.
29-A. Electronic record.
30. “Valuable security”.
31. “A will”.
32. Words referring to acts include illegal omissions.
33. “Act”, “Omission”.
34. Acts done by several persons in furtherance of common intention.
35. When such an act is criminal by reason of its being done with a criminal knowledge or intention.
36. Effect caused partly by act and partly by omission.
37. Co-operation by doing one of several acts constituting an offence.
38. Persons concerned in criminal act may be guilty of different offences.
39. “Voluntarily”.
40. “Offence”.
41. “Special law”.
42. “Local law”.
43. “Illegal”, “Legally bound to do”.
44. “Injury”.
45. “Life”.
46. “Death”.
47. “Animal”.
48. “Vessel”.
49. “Year”, “Month”.
50. “Section”.
51. “Oath”.
52. “Good faith”.
52-A. “Harbour”.

CHAPTER III OF PUNISHMENTS

53. “Punishments”.
53-A. Construction of reference to transportation.
54. Commutation of sentence of death.
55. Commutation of sentence of imprisonment for life.
55-A. Definition of “appropriate Government”.
56. Sentence of Europeans and Americans to penal servitude. Proviso as to sentence for term exceeding ten years but not for life.
57. Fractions of terms of punishment.
58. Offenders sentenced to transportation how dealt with until transported.
59. Transportation instead of imprisonment.
60. Sentence may be (in certain cases of imprisonment) wholly or partly rigorous or simple.
61. Sentence of forfeiture of property.
62. Forfeiture of property in respect of offenders punishable with death, transportation or imprisonment.
63. Amount of fine.
64. Sentence of imprisonment for non-payment of fine.
65. Limit to imprisonment for non-payment of fine, when imprisonment and fine awardable.
66. Description of imprisonment for non-payment of fine.
67. Imprisonment for non-payment of fine, when offence punishable with fine only.
68. Imprisonment to terminate on payment of fine.
69. Termination of imprisonment on payment of proportional part of fine.
70. Fine leviable within six years, or during imprisonment. Death not to discharge property from liability.
71. Limit of punishment of offence made up of several offences.
72. Punishment of person guilty of one of several offences, the judgment stating that it is doubtful of which.
73. Solitary confinement.
74. Limit of solitary confinement.
75. Enhanced punishment for certain offences under Chapter XII or Chapter XVII after previous conviction.

CHAPTER IV GENERAL EXCEPTIONS

76. Act done by a person bound, or by mistake of fact believing himself bound, by law.
77. Act of Judge when acting judicially.
78. Act done pursuant to the judgment or order of Court.
79. Act done by a person justified, or by mistake of fact believing himself justified, by law.
80. Accident in doing a lawful act.
81. Act likely to cause harm, but done without criminal intent, and to prevent other harm.
82. Act of a child under seven years of age.
83. Act of a child above seven and under twelve of immature understanding.
84. Act of a person of unsound mind.
85. Act of a person incapable of judgment by reason of intoxication caused against his will.
86. Offence requiring a particular intent or knowledge committed by one who is intoxicated.
87. Act not intended and not known to be likely to cause death or grievous hurt, done by consent.
88. Act not intended to cause death, done by consent in good faith for person's benefit.
89. Act done in good faith for benefit of child or insane person, by or by consent of guardian.
90. Consent known to be given under fear or misconception.
91. Exclusion of acts which are offences independently of harm caused.
92. Act done in good faith for benefit of a person without consent.
93. Communication made in good faith.
94. Act to which a person is compelled by threats.
95. Act causing slight harm.

Of the right of private defence

96. Things done in private defence.
97. Right of private defence of the body and of property.
98. Right of private defence against the act of a person of unsound mind, etc.
99. Acts against which there is no right of private defence.
100. When the right of private defence of the body extends to causing death.
101. When such right extends to causing any harm other than death.
102. Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of the body.
103. When the right of private defence of property extends to causing death.
104. When such right extends to causing any harm other than death.
105. Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of property.
106. Right of private defence against deadly assault when there is risk of harm to innocent person.

CHAPTER V OF ABETMENT

107. Abetment of a thing.
108. Abettor.
108-A. Abetment in India of offences outside India.
109. Punishment of abetment if the act abetted is committed in consequence and where no express provision is made for its punishment.
110. Punishment of abetment if person abetted does act with different intention from that of abettor.
111. Liability of abettor when one act abetted and different act done.
112. Abettor when liable to cumulative punishment for act abetted and for act done.
113. Liability of abettor for an effect caused by the act abetted different from that intended by the abettor.
114. Abettor present when offence is committed.
115. Abetment of offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life—if offence not committed.
116. Abetment of offence punishable with imprisonment—if offence be not committed.
117. Abetting commission of offence by the public or by more than ten persons.
118. Concealing design to commit offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life.
119. Public servant concealing design to commit offence which it is his duty to prevent.
120. Concealing design to commit offence punishable with imprisonment.

CHAPTER V-A CRIMINAL CONSPIRACY

120-A. Definition of criminal conspiracy.
120-B. Punishment of criminal conspiracy.

CHAPTER VI OF OFFENCES AGAINST THE STATE

121. Waging, or attempting to wage war, or abetting waging of war, against the Government of India.
121-A. Conspiracy to commit offences punishable by Section 121.
122. Collecting arms, etc., with intention of waging war against the Government of India.
123. Concealing with intent to facilitate design to wage war.
124. Assaulting President, Governor, etc., with intent to compel or restrain the exercise of any lawful power.
124-A. Sedition.
125. Waging war against any Asiatic Power in alliance with the Government of India.
126. Committing depredation on territories of Power at peace with the Government of India.
127. Receiving property taken by war or depredation mentioned in Sections 125 and 126.
128. Public servant voluntarily allowing prisoner of State or war to escape.
129. Public servant negligently suffering such prisoner to escape.
130. Aiding escape of, rescuing or harbouring such prisoner.

CHAPTER VII OF OFFENCES RELATING TO THE ARMY, NAVY AND AIR FORCE

131. Abetting mutiny, or attempting to seduce a soldier, sailor or airman from his duty.
132. Abetment of mutiny, if mutiny is committed in consequence thereof.
133. Abetment of assault by soldier, sailor or airman on his superior officer, when in execution of his office.
134. Abetment of such assault, if the assault is committed.
135. Abetment of desertion of soldier, sailor or airman.
136. Harbouring deserter.
137. Deserter concealed on board merchant vessel through negligence of master.
138. Abetment of act of insubordination by soldier, sailor or airman.
138-A. Application of foregoing sections to the Indian Marine Service.
139. Persons subject to certain Acts.
140. Wearing garb or carrying token used by soldier, sailor or airman.

CHAPTER VIII OF OFFENCES AGAINST THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY

141. Unlawful assembly.
142. Being member of unlawful assembly.
143. Punishment.
144. Joining unlawful assembly armed with deadly weapon.
145. Joining or continuing in unlawful assembly, knowing it has been commanded to disperse.
146. Rioting.
147. Punishment for rioting.
148. Rioting, armed with deadly weapon.
149. Every member of unlawful assembly guilty of offence committed in prosecution of common object.
150. Hiring, or conniving at hiring, of persons to join unlawful assembly.
151. Knowingly joining or continuing in assembly of five or more persons after it has been commanded to disperse.
152. Assaulting or obstructing public servant when suppressing riot, etc.
153. Wantonly giving provocation with intent to cause riot—if rioting be committed — if not committed.
153-A. Promoting enmity between different groups on grounds of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, etc., and doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony.
153-AA. Punishment for knowingly carrying arms in any procession or organising, or holding or taking part in any mass drill or mass training with arms.
153-B. Imputations, assertions prejudicial to national integration.
154. Owner or occupier of land on which an unlawful assembly is held.
155. Liability of person for whose benefit riot is committed.
156. Liability of agent of owner or occupier for whose benefit riot is committed.
157. Harbouring persons hired for an unlawful assembly.
158. Being hired to take part in an unlawful assembly or riot.
159. Affray.
160. Punishment for committing affray.

CHAPTER IX OF OFFENCES BY OR RELATING TO PUBLIC SERVANTS

161. Public servant taking gratification other than legal remuneration in respect of an official act.
162. Taking gratification, in order, by corrupt or illegal means, to influence public servant.
163. Taking gratification, for exercise of personal influence with public servant.
164. Punishment for abetment by public servant of offences defined in Section 162 or Section 163.
165. Public servant obtaining valuable thing, without consideration, from person concerned in proceeding or business transacted by such public servant.
165-A. Punishment for abetment of offences defined in Section 161 or Section 165.
166. Public servant disobeying law, with intent to cause injury to any person.
166-A. Public servant disobeying direction under law.
166-B. Punishment for non-treatment of victim.
167. Public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury.
168. Public servant unlawfully engaging in trade.
169. Public servant unlawfully buying or bidding for property.
170. Personating a public servant.
171. Wearing garb or carrying token used by public servant with fraudulent intent.

CHAPTER IX-A OF OFFENCES RELATING TO ELECTIONS

171-A. “Candidate”, “Electoral right” defined.
171-B. Bribery.
171-C. Undue influence at elections.
171-D. Personation at elections.
171-E. Punishment for bribery.
171-F. Punishment for undue influence or personation at an election.
171-G. False statement in connection with an election.
171-H. Illegal payments in connection with an election.
171-I. Failure to keep election accounts.

CHAPTER X OF CONTEMPTS OF THE LAWFUL AUTHORITY OF PUBLIC SERVANTS

172. Absconding to avoid service of summons or other proceeding.
173. Preventing service of summons or other proceeding, or preventing publication thereof.
174. Non-attendance in obedience to an order from public servant.
174-A. Non-appearance in response to a proclamation under Section 82 of Act 2 of 1974.
175. Omission to produce document or electronic record to public servant by person legally bound to produce it.
176. Omission to give notice or information to public servant by person legally bound to give it.
177. Furnishing false information.
178. Refusing oath or affirmation when duly required by public servant to make it.
179. Refusing to answer public servant authorised to question.
180. Refusing to sign statement.
181. False statement on oath or affirmation to public servant or person authorised to administer an oath or affirmation.
182. False information, with intent to cause public servant to use his lawful power to the injury of another person.
183. Resistance to the taking of property by the lawful authority of a public servant.
184. Obstructing sale of property offered for sale by authority of public servant.
185. Illegal purchase or bid for property offered for sale by authority of public servant.
186. Obstructing public servant in discharge of public functions.
187. Omission to assist public servant when bound by law to give assistance.
188. Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant.
189. Threat of injury to public servant.
190. Threat of injury to induce person to refrain from applying for protection to public servant.

CHAPTER XI OF FALSE EVIDENCE AND OFFENCES AGAINST PUBLIC JUSTICE

191. Giving false evidence.
192. Fabricating false evidence.
193. Punishment for false evidence.
194. Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of capital offence.
195. Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment.
195-A. Threatening any person to give false evidence.
196. Using evidence known to be false.
197. Issuing or signing false certificate.
198. Using as true a certificate known to be false.
199. False statement made in declaration which is by law receivable as evidence.
200. Using as true such declaration knowing it to be false.
201. Causing disappearance of evidence of offence, or giving false information to screen offender.
202. Intentional omission to give information of offence by person bound to inform.
203. Giving false information respecting an offence committed.
204. Destruction of document or electronic record to prevent its production as evidence.
205. False personation for purpose of act or proceeding in suit or prosecution.
206. Fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent its seizure as forfeited or in execution.
207. Fraudulent claim to property to prevent its seizure as forfeited or in execution.
208. Fraudulently suffering decree for sum not due.
209. Dishonestly making false claim in Court.
210. Fraudulently obtaining decree for sum not due.
211. False charge of offence made with intent to injure.
212. Harbouring offender.
213. Taking gift, etc., to screen an offender from punishment.
214. Offering gift or restoration of property in consideration of screening offender.
215. Taking gift to help to recover stolen property, etc.
216. Harbouring offender who has escaped from custody or whose apprehension has been ordered.
216-A. Penalty for harbouring robbers or dacoits.
216-B. Definition of “harbour” in Sections 212, 216 and 216-A.
217. Public servant disobeying direction of law with intent to save person from punishment or property from forfeiture.
218. Public servant framing incorrect record or writing with intent to save person from punishment or property from forfeiture.
219. Public servant in judicial proceeding corruptly making report, etc., contrary to law.
220. Commitment for trial or confinement by person having authority who knows that he is acting contrary to law.
221. Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of public servant bound to apprehend.
222. Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of public servant bound to apprehend person under sentence or lawfully committed.
223. Escape from confinement or custody negligently suffered by public servant.
224. Resistance or obstruction by a person to his lawful apprehension.
225. Resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension of another person.
225-A. Omission to apprehend, or sufferance of escape, on part of public servant, in cases not otherwise provided for.
225-B. Resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension, or escape or rescue in cases not otherwise provided for.
226. Unlawful return from transportation.
227. Violation of condition of remission of punishment.
228. Intentional insult or interruption to public servant sitting in judicial proceeding.
228-A. Disclosure of identity of the victim of certain offences, etc.
229. Personation of a juror or assessor.
229-A. Failure by person released on bail or bond to appear in Court.

CHAPTER XII OF OFFENCES RELATING TO COIN AND GOVERNMENT STAMPS

230. “Coin” defined.
231. Counterfeiting coin.
232. Counterfeiting Indian coin.
233. Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting coin.
234. Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting Indian coin.
235. Possession of instrument, or material for the purpose of using the same for counterfeiting coin.
236. Abetting in India the counterfeiting out of India of coin.
237. Import or export of counterfeit coin.
238. Import or export of counterfeits of the Indian coin.
239. Delivery of coin, possessed with knowledge that it is counterfeit.
240. Delivery of Indian coin, possessed with knowledge that it is counterfeit.
241. Delivery of coin as genuine, which, when first possessed, the deliverer did not know to be counterfeit.
242. Possession of counterfeit coin by person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof.
243. Possession of Indian coin by person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof.
244. Person employed in mint causing coin to be of different weight or composition from that fixed by law.
245. Unlawfully taking coining instrument from mint.
246. Fraudulently or dishonestly diminishing weight or altering composition of coin.
247. Fraudulently or dishonestly diminishing weight or altering composition of Indian coin.
248. Altering appearance of coin with intent that it shall pass as coin of different description.
249. Altering appearance of Indian coin with intent that it shall pass as coin of different description.
250. Delivery of coin possessed with knowledge that it is altered.
251. Delivery of Indian coin, possessed with knowledge that it is altered.
252. Possession of coin by person who knew it to be altered when he became possessed thereof.
253. Possession of Indian coin by person who knew it to be altered when he became possessed thereof.
254. Delivery of coin as genuine which, when first possessed, the deliverer did not know to be altered.
255. Counterfeiting Government stamp.
256. Having possession of instrument or material for counterfeiting Government stamp.
257. Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting Government stamp.
258. Sale of counterfeit Government stamp.
259. Having possession of counterfeit Government stamp.
260. Using as genuine a Government stamp known to be counterfeit.
261. Effacing, writing from substance bearing Government stamp, or removing from document a stamp used for it, with intent to cause loss to Government.
262. Using Government stamp known to have been before used.
263. Erasure of mark denoting that stamp has been used.
263-A. Prohibition of fictitious stamps.

CHAPTER XIII OF OFFENCES RELATING TO WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

264. Fraudulent use of false instrument for weighing.
265. Fraudulent use of false weight or measure.
266. Being in possession of false weight or measure.
267. Making or selling false weight or measure.

CHAPTER XIV OF OFFENCES AFFECTING THE PUBLIC HEALTH, SAFETY, CONVENIENCE, DECENCY AND MORALS

268. Public nuisance.
269. Negligent act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life.
270. Malignant act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life.
271. Disobedience to quarantine rule.
272. Adulteration of food or drink intended for sale.
273. Sale of noxious food or drink.
274. Adulteration of drugs.
275. Sale of adulterated drugs.
276. Sale of drug as a different drug or preparation.
277. Fouling water of public spring or reservoir.
278. Making atmosphere noxious to health.
279. Rash driving or riding on a public way.
280. Rash navigation of vessel.
281. Exhibition of false light, mark or buoy.
282. Conveying person by water for hire in unsafe or overloaded vessel.
283. Danger or obstruction in public way or line of navigation.
284. Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substance.
285. Negligent conduct with respect to fire or combustible matter.
286. Negligent conduct with respect to explosive substance.
287. Negligent conduct with respect to machinery.
288. Negligent conduct with respect to pulling down or repairing buildings.
289. Negligent conduct with respect to animal.
290. Punishment for public nuisance in cases not otherwise provided for.
291. Continuance of nuisance after injunction to discontinue.
292. Sale, etc., of obscene books, etc.
293. Sale, etc., of obscene objects to young person.
294. Obscene acts and songs.
294-A. Keeping lottery office.

CHAPTER XV OF OFFENCESRELATING TO RELIGION

295. Injuring or defiling place of worship with intent to insult the religion of any class.
295-A. Deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs.
296. Disturbing religious assembly.
297. Trespassing on burial places, etc.
298. Uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound religious feelings.

CHAPTER XVI OF OFFENCES AFFECTING THE HUMAN BODY

Of offences affecting life

299. Culpable homicide.
300. Murder.
301. Culpable homicide by causing death of person other than person whose death was intended.
302. Punishment for murder.
303. Punishment for murder by life-convict.
304. Punishment for culpable homicide not amounting to murder.
304-A. Causing death by negligence.
304-B. Dowry death.
305. Abetment of suicide of child or insane person.
306. Abetment of suicide.
307. Attempt to murder.
308. Attempt to commit culpable homicide.
309. Attempt to commit suicide.
310. Thug.
311. Punishment.

Of the causing of miscarriage, of injuries to unborn children, of the exposure of infants, and of the concealment of births

312. Causing miscarriage.
313. Causing miscarriage without woman's consent.
314. Death caused by act done with intent to cause miscarriage.
315. Act done with intent to prevent child being born alive or to cause it to die after birth.
316. Causing death of quick unborn child by act amounting to culpable homicide.
317. Exposure and abandonment of child under twelve years, by parent or person having care of it.
318. Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body.

Of hurt

319. Hurt.
320. Grievous hurt.
321. Voluntarily causing hurt.
322. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt.
323. Punishment for voluntarily causing hurt.
324. Voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means.
325. Punishment for voluntarily causing grievous hurt.
326. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means.
326-A. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc.
326-B. Voluntarily throwing or attempting to throw acid.
327. Voluntarily causing hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act.
328. Causing hurt by means of poison, etc., with intent to commit an offence.
329. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act.
330. Voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property.
331. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property.
332. Voluntarily causing hurt to deter public servant from his duty.
333. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty.
334. Voluntarily causing hurt on provocation.
335. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt on provocation.
336. Act endangering life or personal safety of others.
337. Causing hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others.
338. Causing grievous hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others.

Of wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement

339. Wrongful restraint.
340. Wrongful confinement.
341. Punishment for wrongful restraint.
342. Punishment for wrongful confinement.
343. Wrongful confinement for three or more days.
344. Wrongful confinement for ten or more days.
345. Wrongful confinement of person for whose liberation writ has been issued.
346. Wrongful confinement in secret.
347. Wrongful confinement to extort property, or constrain to illegal act.
348. Wrongful confinement to extort confession, or compel restoration of property.

Of criminal force and assault

349. Force.
350. Criminal force.
351. Assault.
352. Punishment for assault or criminal force otherwise than on grave provocation.
353. Assault or criminal force to deter public servant from discharge of his duty.
354. Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty.
354-A. Sexual harassment and punishment for sexual harassment.
354-B. Assault or use of criminal force to woman with intent to disrobe.
354-C. Voyeurism.
354-D. Stalking.
355. Assault or criminal force with intent to dishonour person, otherwise than on grave provocation.
356. Assault or criminal force in attempt to commit theft of property carried by a person.
357. Assault or criminal force in attempt wrongfully to confine a person.
358. Assault or criminal force on grave provocation.

Of kidnapping, abduction, slavery and forced labour

359. Kidnapping.
360. Kidnapping from India.
361. Kidnapping from lawful guardianship.
362. Abduction.
363. Punishment for kidnapping.
363-A. Kidnapping or maiming a minor for purposes of begging.
364. Kidnapping or abducting in order to murder.
364-A. Kidnapping for ransom, etc.
365. Kidnapping or abducting with intent secretly and wrongfully to confine person.
366. Kidnapping, abducting or inducing woman to compel her marriage, etc.
366-A. Procuration of minor girl.
366-B. Importation of girl from foreign country.
367. Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous hurt, slavery, etc.
368. Wrongfully concealing or keeping in confinement, kidnapped or abducted person.
369. Kidnapping or abducting child under ten years with intent to steal from its person.
370. Trafficking of person.
370-A. Exploitation of a trafficked person.
371. Habitual dealing in slaves.
372. Selling minor for purposes of prostitution, etc.
373. Buying minor for purposes of prostitution, etc.
374. Unlawful compulsory labour.

Sexual offences

375. Rape.
376. Punishment for rape.
376-A. Punishment for causing death or resulting in persistent vegetative state of victim.
376-AB. Punishment for rape on woman under twelve years of age.
376-B. Sexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation.
376-C. Sexual intercourse by a person in authority.
376-D. Gang rape.
376-DA. Punishment for gang rape on woman under sixteen years of age.
376-DB. Punishment for gang rape on woman under twelve years of age.
376-E. Punishment for repeat offenders.

Of unnatural offences

377. Unnatural offences.

CHAPTER XVII OF OFFENCES AGAINST PROPERTY

Of theft

378. Theft.
379. Punishment for theft.
380. Theft in dwelling house, etc.
381. Theft by clerk or servant of property in possession of master.
382. Theft after preparation made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of the theft.

Of extortion

383. Extortion.
384. Punishment for extortion.
385. Putting person in fear of injury in order to commit extortion.
386. Extortion by putting a person in fear of death or grievous hurt.
387. Putting person in fear of death or of grievous hurt, in order to commit extortion.
388. Extortion by threat of accusation of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life, etc.
389. Putting person in fear of accusation of offence, in order to commit extortion.

Of robbery and dacoity

390. Robbery.
391. Dacoity.
392. Punishment for robbery.
393. Attempt to commit robbery.
394. Voluntarily causing hurt in committing robbery.
395. Punishment for dacoity.
396. Dacoity with murder.
397. Robbery or dacoity, with attempt to cause death or grievous hurt.
398. Attempt to commit robbery or dacoity when armed with deadly weapon.
399. Making preparation to commit dacoity.
400. Punishment for belonging to gang of dacoits.
401. Punishment for belonging to gang of thieves.
402. Assembling for purpose of committing dacoity.

Of criminal misappropriation of property

403. Dishonest misappropriation of property.
404. Dishonest misappropriation of property possessed by deceased person at the time of his death.

Of criminal breach of trust

405. Criminal breach of trust.
406. Punishment for criminal breach of trust.
407. Criminal breach of trust by carrier, etc.
408. Criminal breach of trust by clerk or servant.
409. Criminal breach of trust by public servant, or by banker, merchant or agent.

Of the receiving of stolen property

410. Stolen property.
411. Dishonestly receiving stolen property.
412. Dishonestly receiving property stolen in the commission of a dacoity.
413. Habitually dealing in stolen property.
414. Assisting in concealment of stolen property.

Of cheating

415. Cheating.
416. Cheating by personation.
417. Punishment for cheating.
418. Cheating with knowledge that wrongful loss may ensue to person whose interest offender is bound to protect.
419. Punishment for cheating by personation.
420. Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property.

Of fraudulent deeds and dispositions of property

421. Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent distribution among creditors.
422. Dishonestly or fraudulently preventing debt being available for creditors.
423. Dishonest or fraudulent execution of deed of transfer containing false statement of consideration.
424. Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property.

Of mischief

425. Mischief.
426. Punishment for mischief.
427. Mischief causing damage to the amount of fifty rupees.
428. Mischief by killing or maiming animal of the value of ten rupees.
429. Mischief by killing or maiming cattle, etc., of any value or any animal of the value of fifty rupees.
430. Mischief by injury to works of irrigation or by wrongfully diverting water.
431. Mischief by injury to public road, bridge, river or channel.
432. Mischief by causing inundation or obstruction to public drainage attended with damage.
433. Mischief by destroying, moving or rendering less useful a lighthouse or sea-mark.
434. Mischief by destroying or moving, etc., a landmark fixed by public authority.
435. Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to cause damage to amount of one hundred or (in case of agricultural produce) ten rupees.
436. Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to destroy house, etc.
437. Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a decked vessel or one of twenty tons burden.
438. Punishment for the mischief described in Section 437 committed by fire or explosive substance.
439. Punishment for intentionally running vessel aground or ashore with intent to commit theft, etc.
440. Mischief committed after preparation made for causing death or hurt.

Of criminal trespass

441. Criminal trespass.
442. House-trespass.
443. Lurking house-trespass.
444. Lurking house-trespass by night.
445. House-breaking.
446. House-breaking by night.
447. Punishment for criminal trespass.
448. Punishment for house-trespass.
449. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with death.
450. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment for life.
451. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment.
452. House-trespass after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint.
453. Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking.
454. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment.
455. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint.
456. Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night.
457. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment.
458. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night after preparation for hurt, assault, or wrongful restraint.
459. Grievous hurt caused whilst committing lurking house-trespass or house-breaking.
460. All persons jointly concerned in lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night punishable where death or grievous hurt caused by one of them.
461. Dishonestly breaking open receptacle containing property.
462. Punishment for same offence when committed by person entrusted with custody.

CHAPTER XVIII OF OFFENCES RELATING TO DOCUMENTS AND TO PROPERTY MARKS

463. Forgery.
464. Making a false document.
465. Punishment for forgery.
466. Forgery of record of Court or of public register, etc.
467. Forgery of valuable security, will, etc.
468. Forgery for purpose of cheating.
469. Forgery for purpose of harming reputation.
470. Forged document or electronic record.
471. Using as genuine a forged document or electronic record.
472. Making or possessing counterfeit seal, etc., with intent to commit forgery punishable under Section 467.
473. Making or possessing counterfeit seal, etc., with intent to commit forgery punishable otherwise.
474. Having possession of document or electronic record described in Section 466 or 467, knowing it to be forged and intending to use it as genuine.
475. Counterfeiting device or mark used for authenticating documents described in Section 467, or possessing counterfeit marked material.
476. Counterfeiting device or mark used for authenticating documents other than those described in Section 467, or possessing counterfeit marked material.
477. Fraudulent cancellation, destruction, etc., of will, authority to adopt, or valuable security.
477-A. Falsification of accounts.

Of property and other marks

478. Trade mark.
479. Property mark.
480. Using a false trade mark.
481. Using a false property mark.
482. Punishment for using a false property mark.
483. Counterfeiting a property mark used by another.
484. Counterfeiting a mark used by a public servant.
485. Making or possession of any instrument for counterfeiting a property mark.
486. Selling goods marked with a counterfeit property mark.
487. Making a false mark upon any receptacle containing goods.
488. Punishment for making use of any such false mark.
489. Tampering with property mark with intent to cause injury.

Of Currency-Notes and Bank-Notes

489-A. Counterfeiting currency-notes or bank-notes.
489-B. Using as genuine, forged or counterfeit currency-notes or bank-notes.
489-C. Possession of forged or counterfeit currency-notes or bank-notes.
489-D. Making or possessing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting currency-notes or bank-notes.
489-E. Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank-notes.

CHAPTER XIX OF THE CRIMINAL BREACH OF CONTRACTS OF SERVICE

490. Breach of contract of service during voyage or journey.
491. Breach of contract to attend on and supply wants of helpless person.
492. Breach of contract to serve at distant place to which servant is conveyed at master's expense.

CHAPTER XX OF OFFENCES RELATING TO MARRIAGE

493. Cohabitation caused by a man deceitfully inducing a belief of lawful marriage.
494. Marrying again during lifetime of husband or wife.
495. Same offence with concealment of former marriage from person with whom subsequent marriage is contracted.
496. Marriage ceremony fraudulently gone through without lawful marriage.
497. Adultery.
498. Enticing or taking away or detaining with criminal intent a married woman.

CHAPTER XX-A OF CRUELTY BY HUSBAND OR RELATIVES OF HUSBAND

498-A. Husband or relative of husband of a woman subjecting her to cruelty.

CHAPTER XXI OF DEFAMATION

499. Defamation.
500. Punishment for defamation.
501. Printing or engraving matter known to be defamatory.
502. Sale of printed or engraved substance containing defamatory matter.

CHAPTER XXII OR CRIMINAL INTIMIDATION, INSULTAND ANNOYANCE

503. Criminal intimidation.
504. Intentional insult with intent to provoke breach of the peace.
505. Statements conducing to public mischief.
506. Punishment for criminal intimidation.
507. Criminal intimidation by an anonymous communication.
508. Act caused by inducing person to believe that he will be rendered an object of the Divine displeasure.
509. Word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman.
510. Misconduct in public by a drunken person.

CHAPTER XXIII OF ATTEMPTS OF COMMIT OFFENCES

511. Punishment for attempting to commit offences punishable with imprisonment for life or other imprisonment.


---Chapter I Introduction Ss 1-5

UPHJS2018-III Edit

62. “Mens rea has no place while determining penal liability under Section 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881”. This statement is:
A. Correct
B. Wrong
C. Partly correct
D. Depends upon facts of the case

Answer

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UPHJS2018-II Edit

91. Mens rea has no place while determining penal liability under section 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881. This statement is :
(a) Correct (b) wrong
(c) Partly correct (d) Depends upon facts of the case

Answer

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UPHJS2016 Edit


4. (a). (i) State the provisions of I.P.C. dealing with its extra-territorial operation. What is the difference between extract-territorial operation and extradition? 5

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UPHJS2016 Edit


4(a). (ii) Decide the following with reasons:—
An Indian commits adultery in England which is not an offence there. He returns to India. Can he be punished under Section 497, I.P.C. in India? 5

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---CH02 General Explanations
Edit

CHAPTER II General Explanations

6. Definitions in the Code to be understood subject to exceptions. - Throughout this Code every definition of an offence, every penal provision, and every illustration of every such definition or penal provision, shall be understood subject to the exceptions contained in the Chapter entitled "General Exceptions", though those exceptions are not repeated in such definition, penal provision, or illustration.

Illustrations

(a) The sections, in this Code, which contain definitions of offences, do not express that a child under seven years of age cannot commit such offences; but the definitions are to be understood subject to the general exception which provides that nothing shall be an offence which is done by a child under seven years of age.

(b) A, a police-officer, without warrant, apprehends Z, who has committed murder. Here A is not guilty of the offence of wrongful confinement; for he was bound by law to apprehend Z, and therefore the case falls within the general exception which provides that "nothing is an offence which is done by a person who is bound by law to do it."

7. Sense of expression once explained. - Every expression which is explained in any part of this Code, is used in every part of this Code in conformity with the explanation.

8. Gender. - The pronoun "he" and its derivatives are used of any person, whether male or female.

9. Number. - Unless the contrary appears from the context, words importing the singular number include the plural number, and words importing the plural number include the singular number.

10. "Man"/"Woman". - The word "man" denotes a male human being of any age; the word "woman" denotes a female human being of any age.

11. "Person". - The word "person" includes any Company or Association or body of persons, whether incorporated or not.

12. "Public". - The word "public" includes any class of the public or any community.

13. Definition of "Queen". - Repealed by the A.O. 1950.

[14. "Servant of Government". - The words "servant of Government" denote any officer or servant continued, appointed or employed in India by or under the authority of Government.]

15. Definition of "British India". - Repealed by the A.O. 1937.

16. Definition of "Government of India". - Repealed by the A.O. 1937.

[17. "Government". - The word "Government" denotes the Central Government or the Government of a [ *] State.]

[18."India". - "India" means the territory of India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir.]

19. "Judge". - The word "Judge" denotes not only every person who is officially designated as a Judge, but also every person,- who is empowered by law to give, in any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, a definitive judgment, or a judgment which, if not appealed against, would be definite, or a judgment which, if confirmed by some other authority, would be definitive, or who is one of a body of persons, which body of persons is empowered by law to give such a judgment.

Illustrations

(a) A Collector exercising jurisdiction in a suit under Act 10 of 1859, is a Judge.

(b) A Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in respect of a charge on which he has power to sentence to fine or imprisonment, with or without appeal, is a Judge.

(c) A member of a panchayat which has power, under Regulation VII, 1816, of the Madras Code, to try and determine suits, is a Judge.

(d) A Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in respect of a charge on which he has power only to commit for trial to another Court, is not a Judge.

20. "Court of Justice". - The words "Court of Justice" denote a Judge who is empowered by law to act judicially alone, or a body of Judges which is empowered by law to act judicially as a body, when such Judge or body of Judges is acting judicially.

Illustration

A panchayat acting under Regulation VII, 1816, of the Madras Code, having power to try and determine suits, is a Court of Justice.

21. "Public servant". - The words "public servant" denote a person falling under any of the descriptions hereinafter following, namely :-

[Naval or Air] Forces [[ *]of India];

[Third. - Every Judge including any person empowered by law to discharge, whether by himself or as a member of any body of persons, any adjudicatory functions;]

Fourth. - Every officer of a Court of Justice [(including a liquidator, receiver or commissioner)] whose duty it is, as such officer, to investigate or report on any matter of law or fact, or to make, authenticate, or keep any document, or to take charge or dispose of any property, or to execute any judicial process, or to administer any oath, or to interpret, or to preserve order in the Court, and every person specially authorized by a Court of Justice to perform any of such duties;

Fifth. - Every jury man, assessor, or member of a panchayat assisting a Court of Justice or public servant;

Sixth. - Every arbitrator or other person to whom, any cause or matter has been referred for decision or report by any Court of Justice, or by any other competent public authority;

Seventh. - Every person who holds any office by virtue of which he is empowered to place or keep any person in confinement;

Eighth. - Every officer of [the Government] whose duty it is, as such officer, to prevent offences, to give information of offences, to bring offenders to justice, or to protect the public health, safety or convenience;

Ninth. - Every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property on behalf of [the Government], or to make any survey, assessment or contract on behalf of [the Government], or to execute any revenue-process, or to investigate, or to report, on any matter affecting the pecuniary interests of [the Government], or to make, authenticate or keep any document relating to the pecuniary interests of [the Government], or to prevent the infraction of any law for the protection of the pecuniary interests of the Government[ *];

Tenth. - Every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property, to make any survey or assessment or to levy any rate or tax for any secular common purpose of any village, town or district, or to make, authenticate or keep any document for the ascertaining of the rights of the people of any village, town or district;

[Eleventh. - Every person who holds any office in virtue of which he is empowered to prepare, publish, maintain or revise an electoral roll or to conduct an election or part of an election;]

[Twelfth. - Every person -

(a) in the service or pay of the Government or remunerated by fees or commission for the performance of any public duty by the Government;

(b) in the service or pay of a local authority, a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).]

Illustration

A Municipal Commissioner is a public servant.

Explanation 1. - Persons falling under any of the above descriptions are public servants, whether appointed by the Government or not.

Explanation 2. - Wherever the words "public servant" occur, they shall be understood of every person who is in actual possession of the situation of a public servant, whatever legal defect there may be in his right to hold that situation.

[Explanation 3. - The word "election" denotes an election for the purpose of selecting members of any legislative, municipal or other public authority, of whatever character, the method of selection to which is by, or under, any law prescribed as by election.]

22. "Movable property". - The words "moveable property" are intended to include corporeal property of every description, except land and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to anything which is attached to the earth.

23. "Wrongful gain".- "Wrongful gain" is the gain by unlawful means of property which the person gaining is not legally entitled.

"Wrongful loss".- "Wrongful loss" is the loss by unlawful means of property to which the person losing it is legally entitled.

Gaining Wrongfully/Losing wrongfully. - A person is said to gain wrongfully when such person retains wrongfully, as well as when such person acquires wrongfully. A person is said to lose wrongfully when such person is wrongfully kept out of any property, as well as when such person is wrongfully deprived of property.

24. "Dishonestly". - Whoever does anything with the intention of causing wrongful gain to one person or wrongful loss to another person, is said to do that thing "dishonestly".

25. "Fraudulently". - A person is said to do a thing fraudulently if he does that thing with intent to defraud but not otherwise.

26. "Reason to believe". - A person is said to have "reason to believe" a thing, if he has sufficient cause to believe that thing but not otherwise.

27. Property in possession of wife, clerk or servant. - When property is in the possession of a person's wife, clerk or servant, on account of that person, it is in that person's possession within the meaning of this Code.

Explanation. - A person employed temporarily or on a particular occasion in the capacity of a clerk or servant, is a clerk or servant within the meaning of this section.

28. "Counterfeit". - A person is said to "counterfeit" who causes one thing to resemble another thing, intending by means of that resemblance to practices deception, or knowing it to be likely that deception will thereby be practised.

[Explanation 1. - It is not essential to counterfeiting that the imitation should be exact.

Explanation 2. - When a person causes one thing to resemble another thing, and the resemblance is such that a person might be deceived thereby, it shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, that the person so causing the one thing to resemble the other thing intended by means of that resemblance to practice deception or knew it to be likely that deception would thereby be practised.]

29. "Document". - The word "document" denotes any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures, or marks, or by more than one of those means, intended to be used, or which may be used, as evidence of that matter.

Explanation 1. - It is immaterial by what means or upon what substance the letters, figures or marks are formed, or whether the evidence is intended for, or may be used in, a Court of Justice, or not.

Illustrations

A writing expressing the terms of a contract, which may be used as evidence of the contract, is a document.

A cheque upon a banker is a document.

A power-of-attorney is a document.

A man or plan which is intended to be used or which may be used as evidence, is a document.

A writing containing directions or instructions is a document.

Explanation 2. - Whatever is expressed by means of letters, figures or marks as explained by mercantile or other usage, shall be deemed to be expressed by such letters, figures or marks within the meaning of this section, although the same may not be actually expressed.

Illustration

A writes his name on the back of a bill of exchange payable to his order. The meaning of the endorsement, as explained by mercantile usage, is that the bill is to be paid to the holder. The endorsement is a document, and must be construed in the same manner as if the words "pay to the holder" or words to that effect had been written over the signature.

[29A. "Electronic record. - The word "electronic record" shall have the meaning assigned to them in clause (s) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.]

30. "Valuable security". - The words "valuable security" denote a document which is, or purports to be, a document whereby any legal right is created, extended, transferred, restricted, extinguished or released, or whereby any person acknowledges that he lies under legal liability, or has not a certain legal right.

Illustration

A writes his name on the back of a bill of exchange. As the effect of this endorsement is to transfer the right to the bill to any person who may become the lawful holder of it, the endorsement is a "valuable security".

31. "A will". - The words "a will" denote any testamentary document.

32. Words referring to acts include illegal omissions. - In every part of this Code, except where a contrary intention appears from the context, words which refer to acts done extend also to illegal omissions.

33. "Act"/"Omission". - The word "act" denotes as well a series of acts as a single act; the word "omission" denotes as well a series of omissions as a single omission.

[34. Acts done by several persons in furtherance of common intention - When a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.]

35. When such an act is criminal by reason of its being done with a criminal knowledge or intention. - Whenever an act, which is criminal only by reason of its being done with a criminal knowledge or intention, is done by several persons, each of such persons who joins in the act with such knowledge or intention is liable for the act in the same manner as if the act were done by him alone with that knowledge or intention.

36. Effect caused partly by act and partly by omission. - Wherever the causing of a certain effect, or an attempt to cause that effect, by an act or by an omission, is an offence, it is to be understood that the causing of that effect partly by an act and partly by an omission is the same offence.

Illustration

A intentionally causes Z's death, partly by illegally omitting to give Z food, and partly by beating Z. A has committed murder.

37. Co-operation by doing one of several acts constituting an offence. - When an offence is committed by means of several acts, whoever intentionally co-operates in the commission of that offence by doing any one of those acts, either singly or jointly with any other person, commits that offence.

Illustrations

(a) A and B agree to murder Z by severally and at different times giving him small doses of poison. A and B administer the poison according to the agreement with intent to murder Z. Z dies from the effects of the several doses of poison so administered to him. Here A and B intentionally co-operate in the commission of murder and as each of them does an act by which the death is caused, they are both guilty of the offence though their acts are separate.

(b) A and B are joint jailors, and as such have the charge of Z, a prisoner, alternately for six hours at a time. A and B, intending to cause Z's death, knowingly co-operate in causing that effect by illegally omitting, each during the time of his attendance, to furnish Z with food supplied to them for that purpose. Z dies of hunger. Both A and B are guilty of the murder of Z.

(c) A, a jailor, has the charge of Z, a prisoner. A, intending to cause Z's death, illegally omits to supply Z with food; in consequence of which Z is much reduced in strength, but the starvation is not sufficient to cause his death. A is dismissed from his office, and B succeeds him. B, without collusion or co-operation with A, illegally omits to supply Z with food, knowing that he is likely thereby to cause Z's death. Z dies of hunger. B is guilty of murder, but, as A did not co-operate with B, A is guilty only of an attempt to commit murder.

38. Persons concerned in criminal act may be guilty of different offences. - Where several persons are engaged or concerned in the commission of a criminal act, they may be guilty of different offences by means of that act.

Illustration

A attacks Z under such circumstances of grave provocation that his killing of Z would be only culpable homicide not amounting to murder. B, having ill-will towards Z and intending to kill him, and not having been subject to the provocation, assists A in killing Z. Here, though A and B are both engaged in causing Z's death, B is guilty of murder, and A is guilty only of culpable homicide.

39. "Voluntarily". - A person is said to cause an effect "voluntarily" when he causes it by means whereby he intended to cause it, or by means which, at the time of employing those means, he knew or had reason to believe to be likely to cause it.

Illustration

A sets fire, by night, to an inhabited house in a large town, for the purpose of facilitating a robbery and thus causes the death of a person. Here, a may not have intended to cause death and may even be sorry that death has been caused by his act; yet, if he knew that he was likely to cause death, he has caused death voluntarily.

[40. "Offence". - Except in the [Chapters] and sections mentioned in clauses 2 and 3 of this section, the word "offence" denotes a thing made punishable by this Code.

In Chapter IV, [Chapter VA] and in the following sections, namely, Sections [64, 65, 66, [67], 71], 109, 110, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, [118, 119, 120] 187, 194, 195, 203, 211, 213, 214, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 347, 348, 388, 389 and 445, the words "offence" denotes a thing punishable under this Code, or under any special or local law as hereinafter defined.

And in sections 141, 176, 177, 201, 202, 212, 216, and 441, the word "offence" has the same meaning when the thing punishable under the special or local law is punishable under such law with imprisonment for a term of six months or upwards, whether with or without fine.]

41. "Special law". - A "special law" is a law applicable to a particular subject.

42. "Local law". - A "local law" is a law applicable only to a particular part of [[ *] [India].]

43. "Illegal"/"Legally bound to do". - The word "illegal" is applicable to every thing which is an offence or which is prohibited by law, or which furnishes ground for a civil action; and a person is said to be "legally bound to do" whatever it is illegal in him to omit.

44. "Injury". - The word "injury" denotes any harm whatever illegally caused to any person, in body, mind, reputation or property.

45. "Life". - The word "life" denotes the life of a human being, unless the contrary appears from the context.

46. "Death". - The word "death" denotes the death of a human being unless the contrary appears from the context.

47. "Animal". - The word "animal" denotes any living creature, other than a human being.

48. "Vessel". - The word "vessel" denotes anything made for the conveyance by water of human beings or of property.

49. "Year"/"Month". - Wherever the word "year" or the word "month" is used, it is to be understood that the year or the month is to be reckoned according to the British calendar.

50. "Section". - The word "section" denotes one of those portions of a Chapter of this Code which are distinguished by prefixed numeral figures.

51. "Oath". - The word "oath" includes a solemn affirmation substituted by law for an oath, and any declaration required or authorized by law to be made before a public servant or to be used for the purpose of proof, whether in a Court of Justice or not.

52. "Good faith". - Nothing is said to be done or believed in "good faith" which is done or believed without due care and attention.

[52A. "Harbour". - Except in Section 157, and in Section 130 in the case in which the harbour is given by the wife or husband of the person harboured, the word "harbour" includes the supplying a person with shelter, food, drink, money, clothes, arms, ammunition or means of conveyance, or the assisting a person by any means, whether of the same kind as those enumerated in this section or not, to evade apprehension.]

UPHJS2018-II Edit

90. In Indian Penal Code, the pronoun "he" and its derivatives are used for:
(a) Male
(b) Female
(c) Any person whether male or female
(d) Such words are not used in the Code

Answer

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UPHJS2018-I Edit

21. Who, according to Section 21 of Indian Penal Code, 1860, is not a public servant :
(a) A commissioned officer in Indian Army, Navy and Air Force
(b) An arbitrator to whom any cause has been referred for adjudication by any court of justice
(c) An officer, who, by virtue of his office, is empowered to place or keep any person in confinement
(d) An advocate, who practices law in a court of justice

Answer

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UPHJS2014 Edit

72. The definition of movable property under section 22 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 excludes………………………
(A) Land
(B) Things attached to the earth
(C) Things permanently fastened to anything which is attached to the earth
(D) All of the above

Answer

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UPHJS2012 Edit

86. ‘A’ is a good swimmer looks ‘B’ drowning but does not try to save ‘A’. ‘A’ has committed the offence of-
(A) murder
(B) culpable homicide not amounting to murder
(C) causing death due to negligent act.
(D) not committed any offence.

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit

42. When a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all-
(A) each of such person is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone
(B) each of such person is liable for his own overt act
(C) each of such person shall liable according to the extent of his participation in the crime
(D) both (B) and (C)

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit

43. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ go to murder ‘Z’. ‘X’ stood on guard with a spear in hand but did not hit ‘Z’ at all. ‘Y’ killed ‘Z’.
(A) only ‘Y’ is liable for murder of ‘Z’
(B) ‘X’ and ‘Y’ both are liable for murder of ‘Z’
(C) ‘X’ is not liable as he did not perform overt act
(D) both (A) and (C)

Answer

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---CH03 Of Punishments

UPHJS2012 Edit

77. Section 73 of the I.P.C. provides for the maximum limit of solitary confinement to be-
(A) one year
(B) two years
(C) three months
(D) six months.

Answer

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UPHJS2012 Edit

85. Theory of retribution-
(A) is a theory in which exemplary punishment shall be given to criminal
(B) is a theory that a criminal should be punished in proportion to his offence
(C) is a theory in which the criminal must be reformed
(D) is a theory in which criminal should be sent to open jail.

Answer

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---Chapter IV General Exceptions Ss 76-106
Edit

76. Act done by a person bound, or by mistake of fact believing himself bound, by law. - Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who is, or who by reason of a mistake of fact and not by reason of a mistake of law in good faith believes himself to be, bound by law to do it.

Illustrations

(a) A, a soldier, fires on a mob by the order of his superior officer, in conformity with the commands of the law. A has committed no offence.

(b) A, an officer of a Court of Justice, being ordered by that Court to arrest Y, and, after due enquiry, believing Z to be Y, arrests Z. A has committed no offence.

77. Act of Judge when acting judicially. - Nothing is an offence which is done by a Judge when acting judicially in the exercise of any power which is, or which in good faith he believes to be, given to him by law.

78. Act done pursuant to the judgment or order of Court. - Nothing which is done in pursuance of, or which is warranted by the judgment or order of, a Court of Justice, if done whilst such judgment or order remains in force, is an offence, notwithstanding the Court may have had no jurisdiction to pass such judgment or order, provided the person doing the act in good faith believes that the court had such jurisdiction.

79. Act done by a person justified, or by mistake of fact believing himself justified, by law. - Nothing is an offence which is done by any person who is justified by law, or who by reason of a mistake of fact and not by reason of a mistake of law in good faith, believes himself to be justified by law, in doing it.

Illustration

A sees Z commit what appears to A to be a murder. A, in the exercise, to the best of his judgment exerted in good faith, of the power which the law gives to all persons of apprehending murderers in the act, seizes Z, in order to bring Z before the proper authorities. A has committed no offence, though it may turn out that Z was acting in self-defence.

80. Accident in doing a lawful act. - Nothing is an offence which is done by accident or misfortune, and without any criminal intention or knowledge in the doing of a lawful act in a lawful manner by lawful means and with proper care and caution.

Illustration

A is at work with a hatchet; the head files off and kills a man who is standing by. Here, if there was no want of proper caution on the part of A, his act is excusable and not an offence.

81. Act likely to cause harm, but done without criminal intent, and to prevent other harm. - Nothing is an offence merely by reason of its being done with the knowledge that it is likely to cause harm, it if be done without any criminal intention to cause harm, and in good faith for the purpose of preventing or avoiding other harm to person or property.

Explanation. - It is question of fact in such a case whether the harm to be prevented or avoided was of such a nature and so imminent as to justify or excuse the risk of doing the act with the knowledge that it was likely to cause harm.

Illustrations

(a) A, the captain of a steam vessel, suddenly and without any fault or negligence on his part, finds himself in such a position that, before he can stop his vessel, he must inevitably run down a boat B, with twenty or thirty passengers on board, unless he changes the course of his vessel, and that, by changing his course, he must incur risk of running down a boat C with only two passengers on board, which he may possibly clear. Here, if A alters his course without any intention to run down the boat C and in good faith for the purpose of avoiding the danger to the passengers in the boat B, he is not guilty of an offence, though he may run down the boat C by doing an act which he know was likely to cause that effect, if it be found as a matter of fact that the danger which he intended to avoid was such as to excuse him in incurring the risk of running down the boat C.

(b) A, in a great fire, pulls down houses in order to prevent the conflagration from spreading. He does this with the intention in good faith of saving human life or property. Here, if it be found that the harm to be prevented was of such a nature and so imminent as to excuse A's act, A is not guilty of the offence.

82. Act of a child under seven years of age. - Nothing is an offence which is done by a child under seven years of age.

83. Act of a child above seven and under twelve of immature understanding. - Nothing is an offence which is done by a child above seven years of age and under twelve, who has not attained sufficient maturity of understanding to judge of the nature and consequences of his conduct on that occasion.

84. Act of a person of unsound mind. - Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who, at the time of doing it, by reason of unsoundness of mind, is incapable of knowing the nature of the act, or that he is doing what is either wrong or contrary to law.

85. Act of a person incapable of judgment by reason of intoxication caused against his will. - Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who, at the time of doing it, is, by reason of intoxication, incapable of knowing the nature of the act, or that he is doing what is either wrong, or contrary to law : provided that the thing which intoxicated him was administered to him without his knowledge or against his will.

86. Offence requiring a particular intent or knowledge committed by one who is intoxicated. - In cases where an act done is not an offence unless done with a particular knowledge or intent, a person who does the act in a state of intoxication shall be liable to be dealt with as if he had the same knowledge as he would have had if he had not been intoxicated, unless the thing which intoxicated him was administered to him without his knowledge or against his will.

87. Act not intended and not known to be likely to cause death or grievous hurt, done by consent. - Nothing which is not intended to cause death, or grievous hurt, and which is not known by the doer to be likely to cause death or grievous hurt, is an offence by reason of any harm which it may cause, or be intended by the doer to cause, to any person, above eighteen years of age, who has given consent, whether express or implied, to suffer that harm; or by reason of any harm which it may be known by the doer to be likely to cause to any such person who has consented to take the risk of that harm.

Illustration

A and Z agree to fence with each other for amusement. This agreement implies the consent of each to suffer any harm which in the course of such fencing, may be caused without foul play; and if A, while playing fairly, hurts Z, A commits no offence.

88. Act not intended to cause death, done by consent in good faith for person's benefit. - Nothing which is not intended to cause death, is an offence by reason of any harm which it may cause, or be intended by the doer to cause, or be known by the doer to be likely to cause, to any person for whose benefit it is done in good faith, and who has given a consent, whether express or implied, to suffer that harm, or to take the risk of that harm.

Illustration

A, a surgeon, knowing that a particular operation is likely to cause the death of Z, who suffers under a painful complaint, but not intending to cause Z's death, and intending, in good faith, Z's benefit, performs that operation on Z, with Z's consent. A has committed no offence.

89. Act done in good faith for benefit of child or insane person, by or by consent of guardian. - Nothing which is done in good faith for the benefit of a person under twelve years of age, or of unsound mind, by or by consent, either express or implied, of the guardian or other person having lawful charge of that person, is an offence by reason of any harm which it may cause, or be intended by the doer to cause or be known by the doer to be likely to cause to that person :

Provided -

First - That this exception shall not extend to the intentional causing of death, or to the attempting to cause death;

Secondly. - That this exception shall not extend to the doing of anything which the person doing it knows to be likely to cause death, for any purpose other than the preventing of death or grievous hurt, or the curing of any grievous disease or infirmity;

Thirdly. - That this exception shall not extend to the voluntary causing of grievous hurt, or to the attempting to cause grievous hurt, unless it be for the purpose of preventing death or grievous hurt, or the curing of any grievous disease or infirmity;

Fourthly. - That this exception shall not extend to the abetment of any offence, to the committing of which offence it would not extend.

Illustration

A, in good faith, for his child's benefit without his child's consent, has his child cut for the stone by a surgeon, knowing it to be likely that the operation will cause the child's death, but not intending to cause the child's death. A is within the exception, inasmuch as his object was the cure of the child.

90. Consent known to be given under fear or misconception. - A consent is not such a consent as is intended by any section of this Code, if the consent is given by a person under fear of injury, or under a misconception of fact, and if the person doing the act knows, or has reason to believe, that the consent was given in consequence of such fear or misconception; or

Consent of insane person. - if the consent is given by a person who, from unsoundness of mind, or intoxication, is unable to understand the nature and consequence of that to which he gives his consent; or

Consent of child. - unless the contrary appears from the context, if the consent is given by a person who is under twelve years of age.

91. Exclusion of acts which are offences independently of harm caused. - The exceptions in sections 87, 88 and 89 do not extend to acts which are offences independently of any harm which they may cause, or be intended to cause, or be known to be likely to cause, to the person giving the consent, or on whose behalf the consent is given.

Illustration

Causing miscarriage (unless caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman) is an offence independently of any harm which it may cause or be intended to cause to the woman. Therefore, it is not an offence "by reason of such harm"; and the consent of the woman or of her guardian to the causing of such miscarriage does not justify the act.

92. Act done in good faith for benefit of a person without consent. - Nothing is an offence by reason of any harm which it may cause to a person for whose benefit it is done in good faith, even without that person's consent, if the circumstances are such that it is impossible for that person to signify consent, or if that person is incapable of giving consent, and has no guardian or other person in lawful charge of him from whom it is possible to obtain consent in time for the thing to be done with benefit:

Provided -

First - That this exception shall not extend to the intentional causing of death, or the attempting to cause death;

Secondly. - That this exception shall not extend to the doing of anything which the person doing it knows to be likely to cause death, for any purpose other than the preventing of death or grievous hurt, or the curing of any grievous disease or infirmity;

Thirdly. - That this exception shall not extend to the voluntary causing of hurt, or to the attempting to cause hurt, for any purpose other than the preventing of death or hurt;

Fourthly. - That this exception shall not extend to the abetment of any offence, to the committing of which offence it would not extend.

Illustrations

(a) Z is thrown from his horse, and is insensible. A, a surgeon, finds that Z requires to be trepanned. A, not intending Z's death, but in good faith, for Z's benefit, performs the trepan before Z recovers his power of judging for himself. A has committed no offence.

(b) Z is carried off by a tiger. A fires at the tiger knowing it to be likely that the shot may kill Z, but not intending to kill Z, and in good faith intending Z's benefit. A's ball gives A a mortal wound. A has committed on offence.

(c) A, a surgeon, sees a child suffer an accident which is likely to prove fatal unless an operation be immediately performed. There is not time to apply to the child's guardian. A performs the operation in spite of the entreaties of the child, intending, in good faith, the child's benefit. A has committed no offence.

(d) A is in a house which is on fire, with Z, a child. People below hold out a blanket. A drops the child from the housetop, knowing it to be likely that the fall may kill the child, but not intending to kill the child, and intending, in good faith, the child's benefit. Here even if the child is killed by the fall, A has committed no offence.

Explanation. - Mere pecuniary benefit is not benefit within the meaning of Sections 88, 89 and 92.

93. Communication made in good faith. - No communication made in good faith is an offence by reason of any harm to the person to whom it is made, if it is made for the benefit of that person.

Illustration

A, a surgeon, in good faith, communicates to a patient his opinion that he cannot live. The patient dies in consequence of the shock. A has committed no offence, though he knew it to be likely that the communication might cause the patient's death.

94. Act to which a person is compelled by threats. - Except murder, and offences against the State punishable with death, nothing is an offence which is done by a person who is compelled to do it by threats, which, at the time of doing it, reasonably cause the apprehension that instant death to that person will otherwise be the consequence : Provided the person doing the act did not of his own accord, or from a reasonable apprehension of harm to himself short of instant death, place himself in the situation by which he became subject to such constraint.

Explanation 1. - A person who, of his own accord, or by reason of a threat of being beaten, joins a gang of dacoits, knowing their character, is not entitled to the benefit of this exception, on the ground of his having been compelled by his associates to do anything that is an offence by law.

Explanation 2. - A person seized by a gang of dacoits, and forced, by threat of instant death, to do a thing which is an offence by law; for example, a smith compelled to take his tools and to force the door of a house for the dacoits to enter and plunder it, is entitled to the benefit of this exception.

95. Act causing slight harm. - Nothing is an offence by reason that it causes, or that it is intended to cause, or that it is known to be likely to cause, any harm, if that harm is so slight that no person of ordinary sense and temper would complain of such harm.

Of the Right of Privates Defence

96. Things done in private defence. - Nothing is an offence which is done in the exercise of the right of private defence.

97. Right of private defence of the body and of property. - Every person has a right, subject to the restrictions contained in Section 99, to defend -

First. - His own body, and the body of any other person, against any offence affecting the human body;

Secondly. - The property, whether movable or immovable, of himself or of any other person, against any act which is an offence falling under the definition of theft, robbery, mischief or criminal trespass, or which is an attempt to commit theft, robbery, mischief or criminal trespass.

98. Right of private defence against the act of a person of unsound mind, etc. - When an act, which would otherwise be a certain offence, is not that offence, by reason of the youth, the want of maturity of understanding, the unsoundness of mind or the intoxication of the person doing that act, or by reason of any misconception on the part of that person, every person has the same right of private defence against that act which he would have if the act were that offence.

Illustrations

(a) Z, under the influence of madness, attempts to kill A; Z is guilty of no offence. But A has the same right of private defence which he would have if Z were sane.

(b) A enters by night a house which he is legally entitled to enter. Z, in good faith, taking A for a house-breaker, attacks A. Here Z, by attacking A under this misconception, commits no offence. But A has the same right of private defence against Z, which he would have if Z were not acting under that misconception.

99. Acts against which there is no right of private defence. - There is no right of private defence against an act which does not reasonably cause the apprehension of death or of grievous hurt, if done, or attempted to be done, by a public servant acting in good faith under colour of his office, though that act may not be strictly justifiable by law.

There is no right of private defence against an act which does not reasonably cause the apprehension of death or of grievous hurt,if done, or attempted to be done, by the direction of a public servant acting in good faith under colour of his office, though that direction may not be strictly justifiable by law.

There is no right of private defence in cases in which there is time to have recourse to the protection of the public authorities.

Extent to which the right may be exercised. - The right of private defence in no case extends to the inflicting of more harm than it is necessary to inflict for the purpose of defence.

Explanation 1. - A person is not deprived of the right of private defence against an act done, or attempted to be done, by a public servant, as such, unless he knows or has reason to believe, that the person doing the act is such public servant.

Explanation 2. - A person is not deprived of the right of private defence against an act done, or attempted to be done, by the direction of a public servant, unless he knows, or has reason to believe, that the person doing the act is acting by such direction, or unless such person states the authority under which he acts, or if he has authority in writing, unless he produces such authority, if demanded.

100. When the right of private defence of the body extends to causing death. - The right of private defence of the body extends, under the restrictions mentioned in the last preceding section, to the voluntary causing of death or of any other harm to the assailant, if the offence which occasions the exercise of the right be of any of the descriptions hereinafter enumerated, namely :-

First. - Such an assault as may reasonably cause the apprehension that death will otherwise be the consequence of such assault;

Secondly. - Such an assault as may reasonably cause the apprehension that grievous hurt will otherwise be the consequence of such assault;

Thirdly. - An assault with the intention of committing rape;

Fourthly. - An assault with the intention of gratifying unnatural lust;

Fifthly. - An assault with the intention of kidnapping or abducting;

Sixthly. - An assault with the intention of wrongfully confining a person, under circumstances which may reasonably cause him to apprehend that he will be unable to have recourse to the public authorities for his release.

[Seventhly. - An act of throwing or administering acid or an attempt to throw or administer acid which may reasonably cause the apprehension that grievous hurt will otherwise be the consequence of such act.]

101. When such right extends to causing any harm other than death. - If the offence be not of any of the descriptions enumerated in the last preceding section, the right of private defence of the body does not extend to the voluntary causing of death to the assailant, but does extend, under the restrictions mentioned in Section 99, to the voluntary causing to the assailant of any harm other than death.

102. Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of the body. - The right of private defence of the body commences as soon as a reasonable apprehension of danger to the body arises from an attempt or threat to commit the offence though the offence may not have been committed; and it continues as long as such apprehension of danger to the body continues.

103. When the right of private defence of property extends to causing death. - The right of private defence of property extends, under the restrictions mentioned in Section 99, to the voluntary causing of death or of any other harm to the wrong-doer, if the offence, the committing of which, or the attempting to commit which, occasions the exercise of the right, be an offence of any of the descriptions hereinafter enumerated, namely :-

First. - Robbery;

Secondly. - House-breaking by night;

Thirdly. - Mischief by fire committed on any building, tent or vessel, which building, tent or vessel is used as a human dwelling, or as a place for the custody of property;

Fourthly. - Theft, mischief or house-trespass, under such circumstances as may reasonable cause apprehension that death or grievous hurt will be the consequence, if such right of private defence is not exercised.

"Uttar Pradesh" - In Section 103, after clause Fourthly, add the following clause, namely :

"Fifthly. - Mischief by fire or any explosive substance committed on -

(a) Any property used or intended to be used for the purpose of Government, or any local authority or other corporation owned or controlled by Government; or

(b) any railway as defined in clause (4) of Section 3 of the Indian Railway Act, 1890 or railways stores as defined in the Railways Stores (Unlawful Possession) Act, 1955; or

(c) any transport vehicle as defined in clause (33) of Section 2 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1939". [Vide U.P. Act No. 29 of 1970, Section 2 w.e.f. 17.7.1970]

104. When such right extends to causing any harm other than death. - If the offence, the committing of which, or the attempting to commit which, occasions the exercise of the right of private defence, be theft, mischief, or criminal trespass, not of any of the descriptions enumerated in the last preceding section, that right does not extend to the voluntary causing of death, but does extend, subject to the restrictions mentioned in section 99, to the voluntary causing to the wrong-doer of any harm other than death.

105. Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of property. - The right of private defence of property commences when a reasonable apprehension of danger to the property commences.

The right of private defence of property against theft continues till the offender has effected his retreat with the property or either the assistance of the public authorities is obtained, or the property has been recovered.

The right of private defence of property against robbery continues as long as the offender causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint or as long as fear of instant death or of instant hurt or of instant personal restraint continues.

The right of private defence of property against criminal trespass or mischief continues as long as the offender continues in the commission of criminal trespass or mischief.

The right of private defence of property against house-breaking by night continues as long as the house-treaspass which has been begun by such house-breaking continues.

106. Right of private defence against a deadly assault when there is risk of harm to innocent person. - If in the exercise of the right of private defence against an assault which reasonably causes the apprehension of death, the defender be so situated that he cannot effectually exercise that right without risk of harm to an innocent person, his right of private defence extends to the running of that risk.

Illustration

A is attacked by a mob who attempt to murder him. He cannot effectually exercise his right of private defence without firing on the mob, and he cannot fire without risk of harming young children who are mingled with the mob. A commits no offence if by so firing he harms any of the children.

UPHJS2012 Edit

79. Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who is-
(A) under 7 years of age
(B) under 14 years of age
(C) under 14 years of age
(D) under 16 years of age

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit

44. Section 76 of IPC provides that nothing is an offence which is done by a person who is or who by reason of-
(A) Mistake of fact in good faith believes himself to be bound by law to do it
(B) Mistake of law in good faith believes himself to be bound by law to do it
(C) Mistake of fact believes himself to be bound by morals to do it
(D) All the above

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UPHJS2009 Edit

46. For a defence of intoxication, to escape criminal liability, the intoxication-
(A) can be self administered
(B) administered against his will or knowledge
(C) should not be self administered
(D) All the above

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit

47. In a case of free fight between two parties-
(A) right of private defence is available to both the parties
(B) right of private defence is available to individuals against individual
(C) no right of private defence is available to either party
(D) right of private defence is available only to one party

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UPHJS2016 Edit


3(a). Discuss the right of the Private Defence of Body with reference to its ambit, extent and limitations. 10


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UPHJS2012 Edit


2. (b) Mr. ‘A’, a chronic heart patient was drawn into a political debate with ‘B’ and in the course of arguments ‘B’ looked at him fiercely and said that “people like him should be hit till they are dead”. Hearing this ‘A’ suffers a heart attack and thes on the spot. Discuss the liability of ‘B’. Argue for the State also. 10


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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


2. (a) (ii) ‘P’ with a known background of sleep-walking, got up from sleep one night, walked to the garage while asleep and drove away his car in that condition for quite some distance. He halted the car at this brother-in-law’s place, entered the room where his brother-in-law was asleep and gave a hard blow to him, thereby severely injuring him. In a prosecution for attempt to commit murder ‘P’s lawyer pleads “non-insane automatism”, on the basis of which he seeks an acquittal. Decide. Do you think that this case should be dealt with under Section 84, I.P.C. ? Examine the criminal liability of P. 5


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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


2. (b) (ii) ‘A’ thief enters ‘B’s house and open his safe. ‘B’ raises an alarm and the thief beats a retreat, while the thief is still in the house, ‘B’ fires at him and kills him. What offence has been committed by ‘B’ ? 5

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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


3. (a) (i) Ramesh finds crop sown by him being damaged by Dinesh. Without making any effort to approach the Police for help, in order to protect the property and to avoid further damage, Ramesh attacked and caused injury to Dinesh. In the fight which ensued Dinesh inflicted knife wounds on Ramesh, which caused his death. Has Dinesh committed any offence ? Give reasons. 5

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---CH05 Abetment

UPHJS 2020 Edit

95. A Magistrate convicts an accused of theft for one year imprisonment and one thousand fines. The maximum punishment for which accused can be sentenced to imprisonment in default of payment of fine shall be:
(A) 1 year
(B) 9 months
(C) 3 months
(D) 6 months

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---CH05a Criminal Conspiracy

---CH06 Offences Against The State

---CH07 Offences Relating to the Armed Forces

---CH08 Offences Against Public Tranquillity

UPHJS2018-II Edit

89. The term unlawful assembly means--
(a) An assembly of five or more persons
(b) An assembly of five or more persons armed with lethal weapons
(c) An assembly of five or more persons with a common object of doing a crime
(d) An assembly of minimum two persons having common intention to commit a crime

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UPHJS2018-I Edit

2. The essential ingredient to form an unlawful assembly as defined in Indian Penal Code is :
(a) an assembly of two or more persons with common object of doing a crime
(b) an assembly of five or more persons armed with weapon
(c) an assembly of five or more persons with common object of doing a crime
(d) an assembly of five or more persons disturbing public peace and tranquility

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UPHJS2012 Edit

80. Which one of the following statements is not true?
(A) For an unlawful assembly the number of persons must be five or more.
(B) Mere presence of a person at the scene of offence does not make him a member of an unlawful assembly.
(C) An assembly which was not unlawful when it assembled may subsequently become an unlawful assembly.
(D) When the accused persons are charged for committing mischief and for rioting separately, the acquittal from charge of mischief would entail automatically acquittal from charge of rioting.

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UPHJS2007 Edit


1. Section 149,1.P.C. which is declaratory of the vicarious liability of the members of an unlawful assembly for acts done in prosecution of common object of that assembly, or for such offence as they know was likely to be committed in prosecution of common object, has been a subject to a great many judgments. Elaborate it referring to decided cases? What is the difference between principles as contained in Section 34, I.P.C. and Section 149,1.P.C.? 15


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---CH09 Offences By or Relating to Public Servants

UPHJS2018-III Edit

64. ‘A’, a public servant, having charge of translation of a document, makes an incorrect translation of a document with an intent to cause injury to ‘B’. The offence committed by ‘A’ is:
A. Non-cognizable
B. Non-bailable
C. Non-compoundable
D. All the above

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---CH09a Offences Relating to Elections

---CH10 Contempts of Authority of Public Servants

UPHJS2009SPL Edit


3. (b) (ii) A Court issues summons to ‘Z’. To avoid the summon ‘Z’ absconds. State the offence with reference to section of the Penal Code committed by ‘Z’. 5


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CG HJS 2018 Edit

  1. (A) Under what circumstances an offence is made out for disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant and also state punishment prescribed for the offence. [ 5 marks ]

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---CH11 False Evidence and Offences Against Public Justice

UPHJS2018-II Edit

99. A, a public servant, having charge of translation of a document, makes an incorrect translation of a document with an intent to cause injury to B. The offence committed by A is :

(a) Non-cognizable (b) Non-bailable
(c) Non-compoundable (d) All the above

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UPHJS2014 Edit

17. As per section 195A of IPC which was insereted by the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2005 the offence of threatening any person to give false evidence, is punishable with
(A) Imprisonment up to 7 years or with fine or with both
(B) Imprisonment up to 5 years or with fine or with both
(C) Imprisonment up to 3 years or with fine or with both
(D) Imprisonment up to 1 years or with fine or with both

Answer

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---CH12 Offences Relating to the Coin and Govt. Stamps

UPHJS2012 Edit


4. (b) ‘A’ is charged under Section 242 of the Indian Penal Code with having been “in possession of counterfeit coin, having known at the time when he became possessed thereof that such coin was counterfeit.” He challenges his conviction on the ground that there was error in the charge because the word “fraudulently” was omitted. Decide. 10


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---CH13 Offences Relating to Weights and Measures

---CH14 Offences Affecting Public Health, Safety, Convenience, Decency and Morals

UPHJS2009SPL Edit


2. (b) (i) ‘A’ buys milk from ‘B’ knowing that it contains water, in order to have ‘B’ prosecuted for selling adulterated milk. What offence has ‘A’ committed ? 5

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---CH15 Offences Relating to Religion

---Chapter XVI Offences Affecting the Human Body Ss 299-377
Edit

CHAPTER XVI Of Offences Affecting The Human Body

Of Offences affecting Life

299. Culpable homicide. - Whoever causes death by doing an act with the intention of causing death, or with the intention of causing such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, or with the knowledge that he is likely by such act to cause death, commits the offence of culpable homicide.

Illustrations

(a) A lays sticks and turf over a pit, with the intention of thereby causing death, or with the knowledge that death is likely to be thereby caused. Z believing the ground to be firm, treads on it, falls in and is killed. A has committed the offence of culpable homicide.

(b) A knows Z to be behind a bush. B does not know it. A, intending to cause, or knowing it to be likely to cause Z's death, induces B to fire at the bush. B fires and kills Z. Here B may be guilty of no offence; but A has committed the offence of culpable homicide.

(c) A, by shooting at a fowl with intent to kill and steal it, kills B who is behind a bush; A not knowing that he was there. Here, although A was doing an unlawful act, he was not guilty of culpable homicide, as he did not intend to kill B, or to cause death by doing an act that he knew was likely to cause death.

Explanation 1. - A person who causes bodily injury to another who is labouring under a disorder, disease or bodily infirmity, and thereby accelerates the death of that other, shall be deemed to have caused his death.

Explanation 2. - Where death is caused by bodily injury, the person who causes such bodily injury shall be deemed to have caused the death, although by resorting to proper remedies and skilful treatment the death might have been prevented.

Explanation 3. - The causing of the death of child in the mother's womb is not homicide. But it may amount to culpable homicide to cause the death of a living child, if any part of that child has been brought forth, though the child may not have breathed or been completely born.

300. Murder. - Except in the cases hereinafter excepted, culpable homicide is murder, if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death, or -

2ndly. - It is done with intention of causing such bodily injury as the offender knows to be likely to cause the death of the person to whom the harm is caused, or -

3rdly. - If it is done with the intention of causing bodily injury to any person and the bodily injury intended to be inflicted is sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death, or -

4thly. - If the person committing the act knows that it is so imminently dangerous that it must, in all probability, cause death or such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, and commits such act without any excuse for incurring the risk of causing death or such injury as aforesaid.

Illustrations

(a) A shoots Z with the intention of killing him. Z dies in consequence. A commits murder.

(b) A, knowing that Z is labouring under such a disease that a blow is likely to cause his death, strikes him with the intention of causing bodily injury. Z dies in consequence of the blow. A is guilty of murder, although the blow might not have been sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause the death of a person in a sound state of health. But if A, not knowing that Z is labouring under any disease, gives him such a blow as would not in the ordinary course of nature kill a person in a sound state of health, here A, although he may intend to cause bodily injury, is not guilty of murder, if he did not intend to cause death, or such bodily injury as in the ordinary course of nature would cause death.

(c) A intentionally gives Z a sword-cut or club-wound sufficient to cause the death of a man in the ordinary course of nature. Z dies in consequence. Here, A is guilty of murder, although he may not have intended to cause Z' death.

(d) A without any excuse fires a loaded cannon into a crown of persons and kills one of them. A is guilty of murder, although he may not have had a premeditated design to kill any particular individual.

Exception 1. - When culpable homicide is not murder. - Culpable homicide is not murder if the offender, whilst deprived of the power of self-control by grave and sudden provocation, causes the death of the person who gave the provocation or causes the death of any other person by mistake or accident.

The above exception is subject to the following provisos:-

First. - That the provocation is not sought or voluntarily provoked by the offender as an excuse for killing or doing harm to any person.

Secondly. - That the provocation is not given by anything done in obedience to the law, or by a public servant in the lawful exercise of the powers of such public servant.

Thirdly. - That the provocation is not given by anything done in the lawful exercise of the right of private defence.

Explanation. - Whether the provocation was grave and sudden enough to prevent the offence from amounting to murder is a question of fact.

Illustrations

(a) A, under the influence of passion excited by a provocation given by Z, intentionally kills, Y, Z's child. This is murder, inasmuch as the provocation was not given by the child, and the death of the child was not caused by accident or misfortune in doing an act caused by the provocation.

(b) Y gives grave and sudden provocation to A. A, on this provocation, fires a pistol at Y, neither intending nor knowing himself to be likely to kill Z, who is near him, but out of sight. A kills Z. Here A has not committed murder, but merely culpable homicide.

(c) A is lawfully arrested by Z, a bailiff. A is excited to sudden and violent passion by the arrest, and kills Z. This is murder, inasmuch as the provocation was given by a thing done by a public servant in the exercise of his powers.

(d) A appears as a witness before Z, a Magistrate, Z says that he does not believe a words of A's deposition, and that A has perjured himself. A is moved to sudden passion by these words, and kills Z. This is murder.

(e) A attempts to pull Z's nose, Z, in the exercise of the right of private defence, lays hold of A to prevent him from doing so. A is moved to sudden and violent passion in consequence, and kills Z. This is murder, inasmuch as the provocation was given by a thing done in the exercise of the right of private defence.

(f) Z strikes B. B is by this provocation excited to violent rage. A, a bystander, intending to take advantage of B's rage, and to cause him to kill Z, puts a knife into B's hand for that purpose. B kills Z with the knife. Here B may have committed only culpable homicide, but A is guilty of murder.

Exception 2. - Culpable homicide is not murder if the offender, in the exercise in good faith of the right of private defence of person or property, exceeds the power given to him by law and causes the death of the person against whom he is exercising such right of defence without premeditation, and without any intention of doing more harm that in necessary for the purpose of such defence.

Illustration

Z attempts to horsewhip A, not in such a manner as to cause grievous hurt to A. A draws out a pistol. Z persists in the assault. A believing in good faith that he can by no other means prevent himself from being horsewhipped, shoots Z to death. A has not committed murder, but only culpable homicide.

Exception 3. - Culpable homicide is not murder if the offender, being a public servant or aiding a public servant acting for the advancement of public justice, exceeds the powers given to him by law, and causes death by doing an act which he, in good faith, believes to be lawful and necessary for the due discharge of his duty as such public servant and without ill-will towards the person whose death is caused.

Exception 4. - Culpable homicide is not murder if it is committed without premeditation in a sudden fight in the heat of passion upon a sudden quarrel and without the offenders having taken undue advantage or acted in a cruel or unusual manner.

Explanation. - It is immaterial in such cases which party offers the provocation or commits the first assault.

Exception 5. - Culpable homicide is not murder when the person whose death is caused, being above the age of eighteen years, suffers death or takes the risk of death with his own consent.

Illustration

A, by instigation, voluntarily causes Z, a person under eighteen years of age to commit suicide. Here, on account of Z's youth, he was incapable of giving consent to his own death; A has therefore abetted murder.

301. Culpable homicide by causing death of person other than person whose death was intended. - If a person, by doing anything which he intends or knows to be likely to cause death, commits culpable homicide by causing the death of any person, whose death he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause, the culpable homicide committed by the offender is of the description of which it would have been if he had caused the death of the person whose death he intended or knew himself to be likely to cause.

302. Punishment for murder. - Whoever commits murder shall be punished with death, or [imprisonment for life], and shall also be liable to fine.

303. Punishment for murder by life-convict. - Whoever, being under sentence of [imprisonment for life], commits murder, shall be punished with death.

304. Punishment for culpable homicide not amounting to murder. - Whoever commits culpable homicide not amounting to murder, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine, if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death, or of causing such bodily injury as is likely to cause death; or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine, or with both, if the act is done with the knowledge that it is likely to cause death, but without any intention to cause death, or to cause such bodily injury as is likely to cause death.

[304A. Causing death by negligence. - Whoever causes the death of any person by doing any rash or negligent act not amounting to culpable homicide, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.]

[304B. Dowry death. - (1) Where the death of a woman is caused by any burns or bodily injury or occurs otherwise than under normal circumstances within seven years of her marriage and it is shown that soon before her death she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or any relative of her husband for, or in connection with, any demand for dowry, such death shall be called "dowry death", and such husband or relative shall be deemed to have caused her death.

Explanation. - For the purpose of this sub-section "dowry" shall have the same meaning as in section 2 of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 (28 of 1961).(2) Whoever commits dowry death shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years but which may extend to imprisonment for life.]

305. Abetment of suicide of child or insane person. - If any person under eighteen years of age, any insane person, any delirious person, any idiot, or any person in a state of intoxication, commits suicide, whoever abets the commission of such suicide, shall be punished with death or [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

306. Abetment of suicide. - If any person commits suicide, whoever abets the commission of such suicide, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

307. Attempt to murder. - Whoever does any act with such intention or knowledge, and under such circumstances that, if he by that act caused death, he would be guilty of murder, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if hurt is caused to any person by such act, the offender shall be liable either to [imprisonment for life], or to such punishment as is hereinbefore mentioned.

Attempts by life-convicts - [Where any person offending under this section is under sentence of [imprisonment for life], he may, if hurt is caused, be punished with death.]

Illustrations

(a) A shoots at Z with intention to kill him, under such circumstances that, if death ensued, A would be guilty of murder. A is liable to punishment under this section.

(b) A, with the intention of causing the death of a child of tender years, exposes it in a desert place. A has committed the offence defined by this section, though the death of the child does not ensue.

(c) A, intending to murder Z, buys a gun and loads it. A has not yet committed the offence. A fires the gun at Z. He has committed the offence defined in this section, and, if by such firing he wounds Z, he is liable to the punishment provided by the latter part of [the first paragraph of] this section.

(d) A, intending to murder Z by poison, purchases poison and mixes the same with food which remains in A's keeping; A has not yet committed the offence defined in this section. A places the food on Z's table or delivers it to Z's servant to place it on Z's table. A has committed the offence defined in this section.

308. Attempt to commit culpable homicide. - Whoever does any act with such intention or knowledge and under such circumstances that, if he by that act caused death, he would be guilty of culpable homicide not amounting to murder, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both; and, if hurt is caused to any person by such act, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

Illustration

A, on grave and sudden provocation, fires a pistol at Z, under such circumstances that if he thereby caused death he would be guilty of culpable homicide not amounting to murder. A has committed the offence defined in this section.

309. Attempt to commit suicide. - Whoever attempts to commit suicide and does any act towards the commission of such offence, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year [of with fine, or with both].

310. Thug. - Whoever, at any time after the passing of this Act, shall have been habitually associated with any other or others for the purpose of committing robbery or child-stealing by means of or accompanied with murder, is a thug.

311. Punishment. - Whoever is a thug, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], and shall also be liable to fine.

Of the Causing of Miscarriage, of Injuries to Unborn Children, of the Exposure of Infants, and of the Concealment of Births

312. Causing miscarriage. - Whoever, voluntarily causes a woman with child to miscarry, shall, if such miscarriage be not caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both; and, if the woman be quick with child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation. - A woman who causes herself to miscarry, is within the meaning of this section.

313. Causing miscarriage without woman's consent. - Whoever commits the offence defined in the last preceding section without the consent of the woman, whether the woman is quick with child or not, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

314. Death caused by act done with intent to cause miscarriage. - Whoever, with intent to cause the miscarriage of a woman with child, does any act which causes the death of such woman, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine;

If act done without woman's consentand if the act is done without the consent of the woman, shall be punished either with imprisonment for life, or with the punishment above mentioned.

Explanation. - It is not essential to this offence that the offender should know that the act is likely to cause death.

315. Act done with intent to prevent child being born alive or to cause it to be die after birth. - Whoever before the birth of any child does any act with the intention of thereby preventing that child from being born alive or causing it to die after its birth, and does by such act prevent that child from being born alive, or cause it to die after its birth, shall, if such act be not caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the mother, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine, or with both.

316. Causing death of quick unborn child by act amounting to culpable homicide. - Whoever does any act under such circumstances, that if he thereby caused death he would be guilty of culpable homicide, and does by such act cause the death of a quick unborn child, shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Illustration

A, knowing that he is likely to cause the death of a pregnant woman, does an act which, if it caused the death of the woman, would amount to culpable homicide. The woman is injured, but does not die; but the death of an unborn quick child with which she is pregnant is thereby caused. A is guilty of the offence defined in this Section.

317. Exposure and abandonment of child under twelve years, by parent or person having care of it. - Whoever being the father or mother of a child under the age of twelve years, or having the care of such child, shall expose or leave such child in any place with the intention of wholly abandoning such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

Explanation. - This section is not intended to prevent the trial of the offender for murder or culpable homicide, as the case may be, if the child die in consequence of the exposure.

318. Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body. - Whoever, by secretly burying or otherwise disposing of the death body of a child whether such child dies before or after or during its birth, intentionally conceals or endeavours to conceal the birth of such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Of Hurt

319. Hurt. - Whoever causes bodily pain, decease or infirmity to any person is said to cause hurt.

320. Grievous hurt. - The following kinds of hurt only are designated as "grievous":-

First. - Emasculation.

Secondly. - Permanent privation of the sight of either eye.

Thirdly. - Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear.

Fourthly. - Privation of any member or joint.

Fifthly. - Destruction or permanent impairing of the powers of any member or joint.

Sixthly. - Permanent disfiguration of the head or face.

Seventhly. - Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth.

Eightly. - Any hurt which endangers life or which causes the sufferer to be during the space of twenty days in severe bodily pain, or unable to follow his ordinary pursuits.

321. Voluntarily causing hurt. - Whoever does any act with the intention of thereby causing hurt to any person, or with the knowledge that he is likely thereby to cause hurt to any person, and does thereby cause hurt to any person, is said "voluntarily to cause hurt".

322. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt. - Whoever voluntarily causes hurt, if the hurt which he intends to cause or knows himself to be likely to cause is grievous hurt, and if the hurt which he causes is grievaus hert, is said "voluntarily to cause grievous hurt."

Explanation. - A person is not said voluntarily to cause grievous hurt except when he both causes grievous hurt and intends or knows himself to be likely to cause grievous hurt. But he is said voluntarily to cause grievous hurt, if intending or knowing himself to be likely to cause grievous hurt of one kind, he actually causes grievous hurt of another kind.

Illustration

A, intending or knowing himself to be likely permanently to disfigure Z's face, gives Z a blow which does not permanently disfigure Z's face, but which causes Z to suffer severe bodily pain for the space of twenty days. A has voluntarily caused grievous hurt.

323. Punishment for voluntarily causing hurt. - Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 334, voluntarily causes hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

And I hereby direct that you be tried on the said charge."

324. Voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means. - Whoever, except in the case provided for by Section 334, voluntarily causes hurt by means of any instrument for shooting, stabbing or cutting, or any instrument which, used as a weapon of offence, is likely to cause death, or by means of fire or any heated substance, or by means of any poison or any corrosive substance, or by means of any explosive substance or by means of any substance which it is deleterious to the human body to inhale, to swallow, or to receive into the blood, or by means of any animal, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

325. Punishment for voluntarily causing grievous hurt. - Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 335, voluntarily causes grievous hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

326. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means. - Whoever, except in the case provided for by Section 335, voluntarily causes grievous hurt by means of any instrument for shooting, stabbing or cutting, or any instrument which, used as a weapon of offence, is likely to cause death, or by means of fire or any heated substance, or by means of any poison or any corrosive substance, or by means of any explosive substance, or by means of any substance which it is deleterious to the human body to inhale, to swallow, or to receive into the blood, or by means of any animal, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

[326A. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc. - Whoever causes permanent or partial damage or deformity to, or burns or maims or disfigures or disables, any part or parts of the body of a person or causes grievous hurt by throwing acid on or by administering acid to that person, or by using any other means with the intention of causing or with the knowledge that he is likely to cause such injury or hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine:Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses of the treatment of the victim:Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.326B. Voluntarily throwing or attempting to throw acid. - Whoever throws or attempts to throw acid on any person or attempts to administer acid to any person, or attempts to use any other means, with the intention of causing permanent or partial damage or deformity or burns or maiming or disfigurement or disability or grievous hurt to that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than five years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation 1\. - For the purposes of section 326A and this section, "acid" includes any substance which has acidic or corrosive character or burning nature, that is capable of causing bodily injury leading to scars or disfigurement or temporary or permanent disability.

Explanation 2\. - For the purposes of section 326A and this section, permanent or partial damage or deformity shall not be required to be irreversible.]

327. Voluntarily causing hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act. - Whoever voluntarily causes hurt, for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer, or from any person interested in the sufferer, any property or valuable security, or from any person interested in the sufferer, any property or valuable security, or of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in such sufferer to do anything which is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

328. Causing hurt by means of poison, etc., with intent to commit an offence. - Whoever administers to or causes to be taken by any person any poison or any stupefying, intoxicating or unwholesome drug, or other thing with intent to cause hurt to such person, or with intent to commit or to facilitate the commission of an offence or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for at term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

329. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act. - Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer any property or valuable security, or of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in such sufferer to do anything that is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment of either description for a term, which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

330. Voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property. - Whoever voluntarily causes hurt for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer, any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in the sufferer to restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security or to satisfy any claim or demand, or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Illustrations

(a) A, a police-officer, tortures Z in order to on induce Z to confess that he committed a crime. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

(b) A, a police-officer, tortures B to induce him to point out where certain stolen property is deposited. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

(c) A, a revenue officer, tortures, Z is order to compel him to pay certain arrears of revenue due from Z. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

(d) A, a zamindar, tortures a raiyat in order to compel him to pay his rent. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

331. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property. - Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in the sufferer to restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security, or to satisfy any claim or demand or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

332. Voluntarily causing hurt to deter public servant from his duty. - Whoever voluntarily causes hurt to any person being a public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, or with intent to prevent or deter that person or any other public servant from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by that person in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

333. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty. - Whoever voluntarily cases grievous hurt to any person being a public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, or with intent to prevent or deter that person or any other public servant from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by that person in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

334. Voluntarily causing hurt on provocation. - Whoever voluntarily causes hurt on grave and sudden provocation, if he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause hurt to any person other than the person who gave the provocation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

335. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt on provocation. - Whoever [voluntarily] cause grievous hurt on grave and sudden provocation, if he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause grievous hurt to any person other than the person who gave the provocation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to four years, or with the fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, or with both.

Explanation. - The last two sections are subject to the same provisos as Exception 1, section 300.

336. Act endangering life or personal safety of others. - Whoever does any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to two hundred and fifty rupees, or with both.

337. Causing hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others. - Whoever causes hurt to any person by doing any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

338. Causing grievous hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others. - Whoever causes grievous hurt to any person by doing any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

Or Wrongful Restraint and Wrongful Confinement

339. Wrongful restraint. - Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person.

Exception. - The obstruction of a private way over land or water which a person in good faith believes himself to have a lawful right to obstruct, is not an offence within the meaning of this section.

Illustration

A obstructs a path along which Z has a right to pass. A not believing in good faith that he has a right to stop the path. Z is thereby prevented from passing. A wrongfully restrains Z.

340. Wrongful confinement. - Whoever wrongfully restrains any person in such a manner as to prevent that person from proceedings beyond certain circumscribing limits, is said "wrongfully to confine" that person.

Illustrations

(a) A causes Z to go within a walled space, and locks Z in. A is thus prevented from proceeding in any direction beyond the circumscribing line of wall. A wrongfully confines Z.

(b) A places men with firearms at the outlets of a building, and tells Z that they will fire at Z if Z attempts to leave the building. A wrongfully confines Z.

341. Punishment for wrongful restraint. - Whoever wrongfully restrains any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month. or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

342. Punishment for wrongful confinement. - Whoever wrongfully confines any person shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

343. Wrongful confinement for three or more days. - Whoever wrongfully confines any person for three days, or more, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

344. Wrongful confinement for ten or more days. - Whoever wrongfully confines any person for ten days, or more, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extent to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

345. Wrongful confinement of person for whose liberation writ has been issued. - Whoever keeps any person in wrongful confinement, knowing that a writ for the liberation of that person has been duly issued, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years in addition to any term of imprisonment to which he may be liable under any other section of this Chapter.

346. Wrongful confinement in secret. - Whoever wrongfully confines any person in such manner as to indicate an intention that the confinement of such person may not be known to any person interested in the person so confined, or to any public servant, or that the place of such confinement may not be known to or discovered by any such person or public servant as hereinbefore mentioned, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years in addition to any other punishment to which he may be liable for such wrongful confinement.

347. Wrongful confinement to extort property, or constrain to illegal act. - Whoever wrongfully confines any person for the purpose of extorting from the person confined, or from any person interested in the person confined, any property or valuable security or of constraining the person confined or any person interested in such person to do anything illegal or to give any information which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

348. Wrongful confinement to extort confession, or compel restoration of property. - Whoever wrongfully confines any person for the purpose of extorting from the person confined or any person interested in the person confined any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the person confined or any person interested in the person confined to restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security or to satisfy any claim or demand, or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Of Criminal Force and Assault

349. Force. - A person is said to use force to another if he causes motion, change of motion, or cessation of motion to that other, or if he causes to any substance such motion, or change of motion, or cessation of motion as brings that substance into contact with any part of that other's body, or with anything which that other is wearing or carrying, or with anything so situated that such contact affects that other's sense of feeling : Provided that the person causing the motion, or change of motion, or cessation of motion, causes that motion, change of motion, or cessation of motion in one of the three ways hereinafter described :

First. - By his own bodily power.

Secondly. - By disposing any substance in such a manner that the motion or change or cessation of motion takes without any further act on his part, or on the part of any other person.

Thirdly. - By inducing any animal to move, to change its motion, or to cease to move.

350. Criminal force. - Whoever intentionally uses force to any person, without that person's consent, in order to the committing of any offence, or intending by the use of such force to cause, or knowing it to be likely that by the use of such force he will cause injury, fear or annoyance to the person to whom the force is used, is said to use criminal force to that other.

Illustrations

(a) Z is sitting in a moored boat on a river. A unfastens the moorings, and thus intentionally causes the boat to drift down the stream. Here A intentionally causes motion to Z, and he does this by disposing substances in such a manner that the motion is produced without any other act on any person's part. A has therefore intentionally used force to Z; and if he has done so without Z's consent, in order to the committing of any offence, or intending or knowing it to be likely that this use of force will cause injury, fear or annoyance to Z, A has used criminal force to Z.

(b) Z is riding in a chariot. A lashes Z's horses, and thereby causes them to quicken their pace. Here A has caused change of motion to Z by inducing the animals to change their motion. A has therefore used force to Z; and if A has done this without Z's consent, intending or knowing it to be likely that he may thereby injure, frighten or annoy Z, A has used criminal force to Z.

(c) Z is riding in a palanquin. A, intending to rob Z, seizes the pole and stops the palanquin. Here A has caused cessation of motion to Z, and he has done this by his own bodily power. A has therefore used force to Z; and as A has acted thus intentionally, without Z's consent, in order to the commission of an offence, A has used criminal force to Z.

(d) A intentionally pushes against Z in the street. Here A has by his own bodily power moved his own person so as to bring it into contact with Z. He has therefore intentionally used force to Z; and if he has done so without Z's consent, intending or knowing it to be likely that he may thereby injure, frighten or annoy Z, he has used criminal force to Z.

(e) A throws a stone, intending or knowing it to be likely that the stone will be thus brought into contact with Z, or with Z's clothes, or with something carried by Z, or that it will strike water and dash up the water against Z's clothes or something carried by Z.

Here, if the throwing of the stone produces the effect of causing any substance to come into contact with Z, or Z's clothes, A has used force to Z; and if he did so without Z's consent, intending thereby to injure, frighten or annoy Z, he has used criminal force to Z.

(f) A intentionally pulls up a woman's veil. Here A intentionally uses force to her, and if he does so without her consent intending or knowing it to be likely that he may thereby injure, frighten or annoy her, he has used criminal force to her.

(g) Z is bathing, A pours into the bath water which he knows to be boiling. Here A intentionally by his own bodily power causes such motion in the boiling water as brings that water into contact with Z, or with that water so situated that such contact must affect Z's sense of feeling. A has therefore intentionally used force to z; and if he has done this without Z's consent intending or knowing it to be likely that he may thereby cause injury, fear, or annoyance to Z, A has he used criminal force.

(h) A incites a dog to spring upon Z, without Z's consent. Here, if A intends to cause injury, fear or annoyance to Z, he uses criminal force to Z.

351. Assault. - Whoever makes any gesture, or any preparation intending or knowing it to be likely that such gesture or preparation will cause any person present to apprehend that he who makes that gesture or preparation is about to use criminal force to that person, is said to commit an assault.

Explanation. - Mere words do not amount to an assault. But the words which a person uses may give to his gestures or preparation such a meaning as may make those gestures or preparations amount to an assault.

Illustrations

(a) A shakes his first at Z, intending or knowing it to be likely that he may thereby cause Z to believe that A is about to strike Z. A has committed an assault.

(b) A begins to unloose the muzzle of a ferocious dog, intending or knowing it to be likely that he may thereby cause Z to believe that he is about to cause the dog to attack Z. A has committed an assault upon Z.

(c) A takes up a stick, saying to Z, "I will give you a beating". Here, though the words used by A could in no case amount to an assault, and though the mere gesture, unaccompanied by any other circumstances, might not amount to an assault, the gesture explained by the words may amount to an assault.

352. Punishment for assault or criminal force otherwise than on grave provocation. - Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person otherwise than on grave and sudden provocation given by that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

Explanation. - Grave and sudden provocation will not mitigate the punishment for an offence under this section, if the provocation is sought or voluntarily provoked by the offender as an excuse for the offence, or if the provocation is given by anything done in obedience to the law, or by a public servant, in the lawful exercise of the powers of such public servant, or if the provocation is given by anything done in the lawful exercise of the right of private defence.

Whether the provocation was grave and sudden enough to mitigate the offence, is a question of fact.

353. Assault or criminal force to deter public servant from discharge of his duty. - Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person being a public servant in the execution of his duty as such public servant, or with intent to prevent or deter that person from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by such person in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

354. Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty. - Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman, intending to outrage or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby outrage her modesty, [shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine]

[354A. Sexual harassment and punishment for sexual harassment. - (1) A man committing any of the following acts-(i) physical contact and advances involving unwelcome and explicit sexual overtures; or(ii) a demand or request for sexual favours; or(iii) showing pornography against the will of a woman; or(iv) making sexually coloured remarks, shall be guilty of the offence of sexual harassment.(2) Any man who commits the offence specified in clause (i) or clause (ii) or clause (iii) of sub-section (1) shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.(3) Any man who commits the offence specified in clause (iv) of sub-section (1) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

354B. Assault or use of criminal force to woman with intent to disrobe. - Any man who assaults or uses criminal force to any woman or abets such act with the intention of disrobing or compelling her to be naked shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

354C. Voyeurism. - Any man who watches, or captures the image of a woman engaging in a private act in circumstances where she would usually have the expectation of not being observed either by the perpetrator or by any other person at the behest of the perpetrator or disseminates such image shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than one year, but which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine, and be punished on a second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than three years, but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation 1.\ - For the purpose of this section, "private act" includes an act of watching carried out in a place which, in the circumstances, would reasonably be expected to provide privacy and where the victim's genitals, posterior or breasts are exposed or covered only in underwear; or the victim is using a lavatory; or the victim is doing a sexual act that is not of a kind ordinarily done in public.

Explanation 2.\ - Where the victim consents to the capture of the images or any act, but not to their dissemination to third persons and where such image or act is disseminated, such dissemination shall be considered an offence under this section.

354D. Stalking. - (1) Any man who -

(i) follows a woman and contacts, or attempts to contact such woman to foster personal interaction repeatedly despite a clear indication of disinterest by such woman; or

(ii) monitors the use by a woman of the internet, email or any other form of electronic communication, commits the offence of stalking:

Provided that such conduct shall not amount to stalking if the man who pursued it proves that-

(i) it was pursued for the purpose of preventing or detecting crime and the man accused of stalking had been entrusted with the responsibility of prevention and detection of crime by the State; or

(ii) it was pursued under any law or to comply with any condition or requirement imposed by any person under any law; or

(iii) in the particular circumstances such conduct was reasonable and justified.

(2) Whoever commits the offence of stalking shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine; and be punished on a second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.]

355. Assault or criminal force with intent to dishonour person, otherwise than on grave provocation. - Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person, intending thereby to dishonour that person, otherwise than or grave and sudden provocation given by that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

356. Assault or criminal force in attempt to commit theft of property carried by a person. - Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person, in attempting to commit theft on any property which that person is then wearing or carrying, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

357. Assault or criminal force in attempt wrongfully to confine a person. - Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person, in attempting wrongfully to confine that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

358. Assault or criminal force on grave provocation. - Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person on grave and sudden provocation given by that person, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both.

Explanation. - The last section is subject to the same Explanation as section 352.

Of Kidnapping, Abduction, Slavery and Forced Labour

359. Kidnapping. - Kidnapping is of two kinds : kidnapping from [India], and kidnapping from lawful guardianship.

360. Kidnapping from India. - Whoever conveys any person beyond the limits of [India] without the consent of that person, or of some person legally authorised to consent on behalf of that person, is said to kidnap that person from [India].

361. Kidnapping from lawful guardianship. - Whoever takes or entices any minor under [sixteen] years of age if a male, or under [eighteen] years of age if a female, or any person of unsound mind, out of the keeping of the lawful guardian of such minor or person of unsound mind, without the consent of such guardian, is said to kidnap such minor or person from lawful guardianship.

Explanation. - The words "lawful guardian" in this section include any person lawfully entrusted with the care of custody of such minor or other person.

Exception. - This section does not extend to the act of any person who is good faith believes himself to be the father of an illegitimate child, or who in good faith believes himself to be entitled to the lawful custody of such child, unless such act is committed for an immoral or unlawful purpose.

362. Abduction. - Whoever by force compels, or by any deceitful means induces, any person to go from any place, is said to abduct that person.

363. Punishment for kidnapping. - Whoever kidnaps any person from [India] or from lawful guardianship, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

[363A. Kidnapping or maiming a minor for purposes of begging. - (1) Whoever kidnaps any minor or, not being the lawful guardian of a minor, obtains the custody of the minor, in order that such minor may be employed or used for the purpose of begging shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.(2) Whoever maims any minor in order that such minor can be employed or used for the purposes of begging shall be punishable with imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.(3) Where any person, not being the lawful guardian of a minor, employs or uses such minor for the purposes of begging, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that he kidnapped or otherwise obtained the custody of that minor in order that the minor might be employed or used for the purposes of begging.(4) In this section, -(a) "begging" means -(i) soliciting or receiving alms in a public place, whether under the pretence of singing, dancing, fortune-telling, performing tricks or selling articles or otherwise;(ii) entering on any private premises for the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms;(iii) exposing or exhibiting, with the object of obtaining or extorting alms, any sore, wound, injury, deformity or disease, whether of himself or of any other person or of an animal;(iv) using a minor as an exhibit for the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms;(b) "minor" means -(i) in the case of a male, a person under sixteen years of age; and

(ii) in the case of a female, a person under eighteen years of age.]

364. Kidnapping or abducting in order to murder. - Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be murdered or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being murdered, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life] or rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Illustrations

(a) A kidnaps Z from [India], intending or knowing it to be likely that Z may be sacrificed to an idol. A has committed the offence defined in this section.

(b) A forcibly carries or entices B away from his home in order that B may be murdered. A has committed the offence defined in this section.

[364A. Kidnapping for ransom, etc. - Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person or keeps a person in detention after such kidnapping or abduction and threatens to cause death or hurt to such person, or by his conduct gives rise to a reasonable apprehension that such person may be put to death or hurt, or causes hurt or death to such person in order to compel the Government or [any foreign State or international inter-governmental organisation or any other person] to do or abstain from doing any act or to pay shall be punishable with death, or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.]

365. Kidnapping or abducting with intent secretly and wrongfully to confine person. - Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person with intent to cause that person to be secretly and wrongfully confined, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

366. Kidnapping, abducting or inducing woman to compel her marriage, etc. - Whoever kidnaps or abducts any woman with intent that she may compelled, or knowing it to be likely that she will be compelled, to marry any person against her will, or in order that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, or knowing it to be likely that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; [and whoever, by means of criminal intimidation as defined in this Code or of abuse of authority or any other method of compulsion, induces any woman to go from any place with intent that she may be, or knowing that it is likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person shall be punishable as aforesaid.]

[366A. Procuration of minor girl. - Whoever, by any means whatsoever, induces any minor girl under the age of eighteen years to go from any place or to do any act with intent that such girl may be, or knowing that it is likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

366B. Importation of girl from foreign country. - Whoever imports into [India] from any country outside India [or from the State of Jammu and Kashmir] any girl under the age of twenty-one years with intent that she may be, or knowing it to be likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person.

[ *] shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable to fine.]

367. Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous hurt, slavery, etc. - Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subject to grievous hurt, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

368. Wrongfully concealing or keeping in confinement, kidnapped or abducted person. - Whoever, knowing that any person has been kidnapped or has been abducted, wrongfully conceals or confines such person, shall be pushed in the same manner as if he had kidnapped or abducted such person with the same intention or knowledge, or for the same purpose as that with or for which he conceals or detains such person in confinement.

369. Kidnapping or abducting child under ten years with intent to steal from its person. - Whoever kidnaps or abducts any child under the age of ten years with the intention of taking dishonestly any moveable property from the person of such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

[370. Trafficking of person. - (1) Whoever, for the purpose of exploitation, (a) recruits, (b) transports, (c) harbours, (d) transfers, or (e) receives, a person or persons, by- First. - using threats, or Secondly. - using force, or any other form of coercion, or Thirdly. - by abduction, or Fourthly. - by practising fraud, or deception, or Fifthly. - by abuse of power, or Sixthly. - by inducement, including the giving or receiving of payments or benefits, in order to achieve the consent of any person having control over the person recruited, transported, harboured, transferred or received, commits the offence of trafficking.

Explanation 1.\ - The expression "exploitation" shall include any act of physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.Explanation2.\ - The consent of the victim is immaterial in determination of the offence of trafficking.(2) Whoever commits the offence of trafficking shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years, but which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.(3) Where the offence involves the trafficking of more than one person, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.(4) Where the offence involves the trafficking of a minor, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.(5) Where the offence involves the trafficking of more than one minor, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than fourteen years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.(6) If a person is convicted of the offence of trafficking of minor on more than one occasion, then such person shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.(7) When a public servant or a police officer is involved in the trafficking of any person then, such public servant or police officer shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

370A. Exploitation of a trafficked person. - (1) Whoever, knowingly or having reason to believe that a minor has been trafficked, engages such minor for sexual exploitation in any manner, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years, but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

(2) Whoever, knowingly by or having reason to believe that a person has been trafficked, engages, such person for sexual exploitation in any manner, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years, but which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.]

371. Habitual dealing in slaves. - Whoever habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

372. Selling minor for purposes of prostitution, etc. - Whoever sells, lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any [person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, or knowing it to be likely that such person will at any age be] employed or used for any such purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

[Explanation I. - When a female under the age of eighteen years is sold, let for hire, or otherwise disposed of to a prostitute or to any person who keeps or manages a brothel, the person so disposing of such female shall, until the contrary is proved, be presumed to have disposed of her with the intent that she shall be used for the purpose of prostitution.

Explanation II. - For the purposes of this section "illicit intercourse" means sexual intercourse between persons not united by marriage or by any union or tie which, though not amounting to a marriage, is recognised by the personal law or custom of the community to which they belong or, where they belong to different communities, of both such communities, as constituting between them a quasi-marital relation.]

373. Buying minor for purposes of prostitution, etc. - Whoever buys, hires or otherwise obtains possession of [any person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, or knowing it to be likely hat such person will at any age be] employed or used for any purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

[Explanation I. - Any prostitute or any person keeping or managing a brothel, who buys, hires or otherwise obtains possession of a female under the age of eighteen years shall, until the contrary is proved, be presumed to have obtained possession of such female with the intent that she shall be used for the purpose of prostitution.Explanation II. - "Illicit intercourse" has the same meaning as in section 372].

374. Unlawful compulsory labour. - Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

Sexual offences

[375. Rape. - A man is said to commit "rape" if he-(a) penetrates his penis, to any extent, into the vagina, mouth, urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or(b) inserts, to any extent, any object or a part of the body, not being the penis, into the vagina, the urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or(c) manipulates any part of the body of a woman so as to cause penetration into the vagina, urethra, anus or any part of body of such woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or(d) applies his mouth to the vagina, anus, urethra of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person, under the circumstances falling under any of the following seven descriptions:-First.-Against her will.Secondly.-Without her consent.Thirdly.-With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested, in fear of death or of hurt.Fourthly.-With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married.Fifthly.-With her consent when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupefying or unwholesome substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.Sixthly.-With or without her consent, when she is under eighteen years of age.Seventhly.-When she is unable to communicate consent.

Explanation 1.\ - For the purposes of this section, "vagina" shall also include labia majora.

Explanation 2.\ - Consent means an unequivocal voluntary agreement when the woman by words, gestures or any form of verbal or non-verbal communication, communicates willingness to participate in the specific sexual act:Provided that a woman who does not physically resist to the act of penetration shall not by the reason only of that fact, be regarded as consenting to the sexual activity.

Exception 1.\ - A medical procedure or intervention shall not constitute rape.*

Exception 2.* - Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape.]

[ 376. Punishment for rape. -(1) Whoever, except in the cases provided for in sub-section (2), commits rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which [shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.]

(2) Whoever,-

(a) being a police officer, commits rape-

(i) within the limits of the police station to which such police officer is appointed; or

(ii) in the premises of any station house; or

(iii) on a woman in such police officer's custody or in the custody of a police officer subordinate to such police officer; or

(b) being a public servant, commits rape on a woman in such public servant's custody or in the custody of a public servant subordinate to such public servant; or

(c) being a member of the armed forces deployed in an area by the Central or a State Government commits rape in such area; or

(d) being on the management or on the staff of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force or of a women's or children's institution, commits rape on any inmate of such jail, remand home, place or institution; or

(e) being on the management or on the staff of a hospital, commits rape on a woman in that hospital; or

(f) being a relative, guardian or teacher of, or a person in a position of trust or authority towards the woman, commits rape on such woman; or

(g) commits rape during communal or sectarian violence; or

(h) commits rape on a woman knowing her to be pregnant; or

[(i) ***.]

(j) commits rape, on a woman incapable of giving consent; or

(k) being in a position of control or dominance over a woman, commits rape on such woman; or

(l) commits rape on a woman suffering from mental or physical disability; or

(m) while committing rape causes grievous bodily harm or maims or disfigures or endangers the life of a woman; or

(n) commits rape repeatedly on the same woman, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation.\ - For the purposes of this sub-section,-

(a) "armed forces" means the naval, military and air forces and includes any member of the Armed Forces constituted under any law for the time being in force, including the paramilitary forces and any auxiliary forces that are under the control of the Central Government or the State Government;

(b) "hospital" means the precincts of the hospital and includes the precincts of any institution for the reception and treatment of persons during convalescence or of persons requiring medical attention or rehabilitation;

(c) "police officer" shall have the same meaning as assigned to the expression "police" under the Police Act, 1861;

(d) "women's or children's institution" means an institution, whether called an orphanage or a home for neglected women or children or a widow's home or an institution called by any other name, which is established and maintained for the reception and care of women or children.]

[(3) Whoever, commits rape on a woman under sixteen years of age shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, and shall also be liable to fine:Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:Provided further that any fine imposed under this sub-section shall be paid to the victim.]

[376A. Punishment for causing death or resulting in persistent vegetative state of victim. - Whoever, commits an offence punishable under sub-section (1) or subsection (2) of section 376 and in the course of such commission inflicts an injury which causes the death of the woman or causes the woman to be in a persistent vegetative state, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, or with death.]

[376AB. Punishment for rape on woman under twelve years of age. - Whoever, commits rape on a woman under twelve years of age shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, and with fine or with death:Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.]

[376B. Sexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation. - Whoever has sexual intercourse with his own wife, who is living separately, whether under a decree of separation or otherwise, without her consent, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.Explanation.\ - In this section, "sexual intercourse" shall mean any of the acts mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) of section 375.]

[376C. Sexual intercourse by a person in authority. - Whoever, being-(a) in a position of authority or in a fiduciary relationship; or(b) a public servant; or(c) superintendent or manager of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force, or a women's or children's institution; or(d) on the management of a hospital or being on the staff of a hospital, abuses such position or fiduciary relationship to induce or seduce any woman either in his custody or under his charge or present in the premises to have sexual intercourse with him, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than five years, but which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation 1.\ - In this section, "sexual intercourse" shall mean any of the acts mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) of section 375.

Explanation 2.\ - For the purposes of this section, Explanation 1 to section 375 shall also be applicable.

Explanation 3.\ - "Superintendent", in relation to a jail, remand home or other place of custody or a women's or children's institution, includes a person holding any other office in such jail, remand home, place or institution by virtue of which such person can exercise any authority or control over its inmates.

Explanation 4.\ - The expressions "hospital" and "women's or children's institution" shall respectively have the same meaning as in Explanation to sub-section (2) of section 376.]

[376D. Gang rape. - Where a woman is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, and with fine:Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.]

[376DA. Punishment for gang rape on woman under sixteen years of age. - Where a woman under twelve years of age is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with imprisonment for life,which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, and with fine, or with death:Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

376DB. Punishment for gang rape on woman under twelve years of age. - Where a woman under twelve years of age is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, and with fine or with death:

Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:

Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.]

[376E. Punishment for repeat offenders. - Whoever has been previously convicted of an offence punishable under section 376 or section 376A or [section 376AB or section 376D or section 376DA or section 376DB,] and is subsequently convicted of an offence punishable under any of the said sections shall be punished with imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person's natural life, or with death.]

Of Unnatural Offences

377. Unnatural offences. - Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation. - Peneration is sufficient to constitute the carnal intercourse necessary to the offence described in this section.

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For punishment of offence under Section 363 I.P.C., Section 361 I.P.C. and its ingredients are to be proved, which requires taking or enticing of a minor under 16 if male and under 18 if female, from lawful guardianship or a person of unsound mind of any age, without consent of that guardian.

Apex Court in Thakorlal D. Vadgama vs The State Of Gujarat; AIR 1973 SC 2313, has propounded the words “whoever takes or entices any minor” under Section 361 I.P.C. and observed as to what actually means. According to the Supreme Court, the word “takes”, does not necessarily connote taking by force and does not confined to use of force, actual or constructive. These words merely mean “to cause to woke”, “to support” or “to get into possession”. The gravamen of this offence under Section 361 I.P.C. lies in the taking or enticing of a minor, specified in this section out of the keeping of the lawful guardianship without the consent of such guardian.

On a plain reading of this Section, the consent of the minor, who is taken or enticed, is wholly immaterial, it is only the guardian’s consent which takes the case within its purview. Nor is it necessary that the taking or enticing must be shown to have been by means of force or fraud. Persuasion by the accused person, which creates willingness on the part of minor to be taken out of the keeping of the lawful guardianship would be sufficient to attract this Section 361 I.P.C., as has been held by Apex Court in State of Haryana Vs. Raja Ram; AIR 1973 SC 819.

Offence punishable under Section 366 I.P.C. requires three principal ingredients

(I) kidnapping or abduction to any women

(II) such kidnapping or abduction must be (i) with intent that she may be compelled or knowing it to be likely that she will be compelled to marry any person against her will; or (ii) in order that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse or knowing it to be likely that she will be forced or seduced to illegal intercourse, or (iii) by means of criminal intimidation or otherwise by enticing any women to any place with intent that she may be or knowing that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse.

It is immaterial whether the women kidnapped is married women or not.

To bring him an offence punishable under Section 366 I.P.C., the prosecution is to prove (a) that the accused kidnapped has understood Section 360 or 361 I.P.C. or abducted the victim has understood Section 362 I.P.C.; (b) that the victim of the aforesaid kidnapping or abduction was a female; (c) that the accused during the kidnapping or abduction had intention or knew it likely that (1) such women might or would be forced to marry a person against her will, or (2) that she might or would be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, or (3) by means of criminal intimidation or otherwise by enticing a women to go from any place with intent that she may be or knowing that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse.

Apex Court in Ramesh Vs. State of Maharashtra AIR 1962 SC 1908, three principal ingredients are to be proved by prosecution for charge under Section 366A I.P.C. (a) that a minor girl below the age of 18 years is induced by the accused, (b) that she is induced to go from any place or to do any act, and © that she is so induced with intent that she may be or knowing that it is likely that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person.

UPHJS2018-III Edit

33. ‘A’ has knocked down two teeth of ‘B’. In this case, ‘A’ has committed:
A. Mischief
B. Hurt
C. Grievous hurt
D. Criminal intimidation

Answer

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UPHJS2018-III Edit

49. In which of the following cases, decriminalizing homosexuality, the Supreme Court of India held that “consensual sexual acts between adults cannot be a crime:
A. Sakshi Versus Union of India
B. Naz Foundation (India) Trust Versus Suresh Kumar Koushal
C. Navtej Singh Johar Versus Union of India
D. Suresh Kumar Koushal Versus Naz Foundation (India) Trust

Answer

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UPHJS2018-II Edit

71. In which of the following cases, decriminalizing homosexuality the Supreme Court of India held that consensual sexual acts between adults cannot be a crime :
(a) Sakshi v: Union of India
(b) Naz Foundation (India) Trust v. Suresh Kumar Koushal
(c) Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India
(d) Suresh Kumar Koushal v. Naz Foundation (India) Trust

Answer

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UPHJS2018-I Edit

3. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 has inserted four new sections after section 354 of the Penal Code. One of the newly inserted sections deals with Voyeurism. Mark that Section :
(a) Section 354 A
(b) Section 354 B
(c) Section 354 C
(d) Section 354 D

Answer

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UPHJS2018-I Edit

84. Kidnapping from lawful guardianship under Section 361 of IPC can be :
(a) of a person under sixteen years of age if male
(b) of a person under eighteen years of age if female
(c) of a person of unsound mind
(d) All of the above

Answer

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UPHJS2016 Edit

72. "Encouraging a widow to commit sati is abatement to commit suicide."
The statement is:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) Partly correct .
(d) None of the above

Answer

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UPHJS2016 Edit

96. "A* has knocked down two teeth of "B In this case "A’ has committed :
(a) Mischief
(b) Hurt
(c) Grievious hurt
(d) Criminal intimidation

Answer

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UPHJS2014 Edit

18. Two ladies of young age, A & B fight with each other. A was having a blade with which ‘A’ inflicits injury on the face of B leaving a scar on the cheek of B. A is guilty of offence of causing
(A) Grievous hurt
(B) Grievous hurt by rash or negligent act
(C) Simple hurt
(D) Simple hurt by rash or negligent act

Answer

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UPHJS2014 Edit

32. Section 497 IPC, which punishes only a male participant in the offence of adultery is intra vires, in view of which provisions of the constitution of India.
(A) Article 14
(B) Article 15 (3)
(C) Article 16 (4)
(D) Article 21

Answer

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UPHJS2012 Edit

81. The accused inflicted injuries on non-vital parts of the deceased which were not found to be sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death but it was proved that he inflicted the injuries with a nowledge that with these injuries the victim was likely to die. The case would be punishable under section-
(A) 302 I.P.C.
(B) 303 I.P.C.
(C) 304 Part I I.P.C.
(D) 304 Part II I.P.C.

Answer

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UPHJS2012 Edit

82. The termination of pregnancy will attract penal provisions of Section 312 I.P.C. if it is done-
(A) to prevent injury to the physical or mental health of the pregnant woman
(B) in view of the substantial risk that if the child is born it would suffer from such physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped
(C) as the pregnancy is alleged by pregnant woman to have been caused by rape
(D) None of the above.

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UPHJS2012 Edit

83. Which kind of hurt is not grievous?
(A) Any hurt which endangers life.
(B) Any hurt which causes the sufferer to be during the space of 15 days in severe bodily pain.
(C) Permanent privation of the sight of either eye.
(D) Privation of any member or joint.

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UPHJS2009 Edit

45. Which Section of IPC has been declared unconstitutional and violative of Article 14 and 21 of the Constitution of India?
(A) Section 314
(B) Section 301
(C) Section 303
(D) Section 306

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UPHJS2009 Edit

48. For proving an offence under Section 307 of IPC-
(A) intention to commit murder has to be proved
(B) causing of grievous hurt is to be proved
(C) use of lethal weapon is to be proved
(D) actual injury is to be proved

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit

49. Preparation to commit murder is-
(A) punishable
(B) not punishable
(C) punishable with fine
(D) All the above

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit

50. Preparation to commit dacoity is a -
(A) punishable offence
(B) not punishable offence
(C) no offence
(D) None of the above

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UPHJS2016 Edit


3(b). A group of six adult persons from Allahabad consisting of five men namely A, B, C, D, E and one girl namely F, went to attend an Adventure Camp in Darjeeling. Another group of five men had also gone there from Kanpur with similar purpose. One evening when the Allahabad Group was enjoying a campfire, the Kanpur Group after seeing the girl from a distance came over there and started passing lewd and obscene sexually coloured remarks on the girl. The Allahabad Group protested against the same but the eve-teasing continued unabated. ‘A’ said to the eve-teasers that they should better go and misbehave with their own sisters. Getting (enraged) at such remarks of protest, the Kanpur Group jointly assaulted upon ‘A’ by kicks and fists. In response to this ‘B’ picked up a half brick lying there and using the same caused thereby simple injuries to one of the men of Kanpur Group namely ‘K’. Similarly ‘C’ also picked up the brick and threw it on the Kanpur Group causing fracture of arm to another of them namely ‘L’. The other two men of Kanpur Group namely ‘M’ and ‘N’ were pushed back by ‘D’ and ‘E’ by force as a result of which they collided with the forest rock which was just behind them resulting in one fracture each on their heads. During the course of all these happenings ‘A’ of Allahabad Group received multiple simple injuries. Meanwhile in the same process one of the men of Kanpur Group namely ‘O’ pulled down ‘E’ on the ground, gave him repeated fists blows and while doing so he also kept abusing ‘E’ calling him all sort of filthy names. ‘E’ somehow managed to wriggle out from the grip and picked up a knife lying there and gave repeated blows to Kanpur man ‘O’ on his chest and continued that act of stabbing till the Kanpur man died.
Keeping in view the events which took place as have been described above, please answer the following questions:—
(i) Critically examine and discuss whether the Allahabad Group as such or any of its members is or are guilty of committing any offence or offences? Discuss the liability of each individual member of both the groups and give reasons for holding them guilty or not guilty.
(ii) Whether there will or there will not be any connecting nexus of liability in between different members of the Allahabad Group? Whether the act done by ‘E’ shall make A, B, C, D and F accountable and liable for the same? If yes, why? If not, why? 20


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UPHJS2016 Edit


4(b) “A” knowing that he is likely to cause the death of a pregnant woman, does an act which, if it caused the death of a woman, would amount to culpable homicide. The woman is injured, but does not die; but the death of an unborn child with which she is pregnant is thereby caused. What offence ‘A’ has committed under the Indian Penal Code? Answer with reasons. 10


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UPHJS2014 Edit


1. (a) Define kidnapping and abduction. Distinguish between them. 10

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UPHJS2014 Edit


1. (b) A Hindu girl 17 years of age, studying in XII Standard under the care and protection of her parents was living with them. She was having intimacy with a shopkeeper running a shop near her house. One day the girl left her house and went to the shopkeeper, and asked him to take her away permanently. The shopkeeper took her away to several places. Later on he was arrested under Section 363 of the Indian Penal Code. State whether the shopkeeper can be convicted. Answer giving reasons with reference to legal provision. 5

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UPHJS2014 Edit


1. (c) A 13-year-old girl went to see a fair with her maternal uncle. Due to heavy crowd in the fair, she was separated from her maternal uncle. She could not remember even the address of her house. One person enticed her and took her away to his house. At his residence he made preparations for the marriage of this girl with his son. In the meantime this person was arrested by police. Will he be convicted for kidnapping? Answer with reasons referring to legal provisions. 5


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UPHJS2014 Edit


3. Explain the legal effect of Section 375, I.P.C. after its latest amendment on Section 377, IP.C. with reference,to, the decision of the Apex Court in the case of Suresh Kumar Kushal v. Naz Foundation, 2014 (1) SCC Page 1. 10


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UPHJS2014 Edit


4. Discuss the criminal liability of a Medical Practitioner in a matter arising out of alleged negligence as explained by the Supreme Court in the case of Jacob Mathew v. State of Punjab and another, reported in (2005) 6 SCC 1. 10


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UPHJS2012 Edit


1. (a) State the essential ingredients of the offence of “dowry death” ? How it differs from the offence of “abetment of suicide”? Answer referring to relevant provisions of the Indian Penal Code and Indian Evidence Act. 10

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UPHJS2012 Edit


1. (b) An army Jawan ‘X’ who was away from his home for the last two years, requested his senior ‘Y for leave, which ‘Y refused. Annoyed at this, ‘X’ fired two shots at Y, one shot hitting Y beneath the knee of the right leg as a result of which he fell down. ‘X’ fired another shot which hit Y at the upper left arm. Y died after ten days. Discuss the liability of ‘X’. 10


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UPHJS2012 Edit


3 (a) Distinguish between culpable homicide and causing death by rash or negligent act. 10

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UPHJS2012 Edit


3. (b) ‘A’ promises to ‘B’ his student, who is 17 years of age to marry her and induces her to cohabit with him. He has given her false assurance of marriage and also fraudulently gone through certain ceremonies of marriage making ‘B’ to believe that she was a lawfully wedded wife of ‘A’. Later ‘A’ refused to recognise her as his wife. What offence is committed by ‘A’ and why? Give reasons for your answer. 10


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UPHJS2009 Edit


1. (a) What is a ‘murder’ and how it is different from culpable homicide not amounting to murder? Mention relevant sections of I.P.C. and case law in support of your answer. 10

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UPHJS2009 Edit


1. (b) (i) ‘A’ was surrounded by ‘X’, ‘Y’, ‘Z’ and four unknown persons, who were all armed with lathi, Axe, and Gandasa. All the aforesaid persons launched an attack on ‘A’, who sustained a fracture of the parietal and frontal bones of skull with other numerous injuries which all cumulatively could have caused his death and was hospitalized for a month. State offences, which have been committed by the accused persons.

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UPHJS2009 Edit


1. (b) (ii) ‘X’, with an intention to murder ‘Bs hatched a conspiracy with ‘Ys, purchased a pistol which cartridges and both of them went to the house of ‘Bs at night, but they were caught by the gatekeeper at the gate itself. What offences, if any, have been committed by them? State reasons in support of the answer. 10

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UPHJS2009 Edit


2. (a) (i) ‘M’ was stopped in the way by five persons ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘X’, ‘Y’ and ‘Z’. All of them started beating ‘M’. Sustaining injury ‘M’ fell down on the ground. While escaping, ‘Z’ took away the purse of ‘M’. What offence/offences has/have been committed by ‘A’ and ‘Z’? Explain with reference to relevant sections of I.P.C.

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UPHJS2009 Edit


2. (a) (ii) A gang of ten persons entered into a house and started looting the property. House owner resisted looting of his property and therefore, while escaping, one of the persons shot dead the house owner. Explain what offence has been committed by the culprits? What can be the maximum sentence that can be imposed on the accused? 10

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UPHJS2009 Edit


3. Discuss the following problems and state what offence of, if any, accused is guilty in each of the following cases :
(a) ‘A’ a constable tried to apprehend the accused, the latter aimed and fired a gun from a very close range at the thigh of the constable thereby causing an injury, which in the opinion of the doctor was sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death. The constable died as a result of injury received by him. Of what offence is the accused guilty? Give reasons.
(b) ‘A’ is lawfully arrested by ‘B’ a bailiff. ‘A’ is excited to sudden and violent passion by the arrest and kills ‘B’
(c) ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ are charged under Section 302/34,1.P.C. ‘A’ had a sharp edged weapon and the other two ‘B’ and ‘C’ chased the deceased person. Discuss whether a case under Section 302/34, I.P.C. is made out against ‘B’ and ‘C’? What offence each has committed? What defence is available to *B’ and ‘C’?
(d) ‘A’ entered the house of ‘B’ with the intention of committing theft. ‘B’ and other members of his family surrounded and attacked ‘A’ with lathis. Finding life in danger ‘A’ whipped out a revolver and fired causing the death of ‘B\ Is ‘A’ guilty of murder under Section 302 of I.P.C.? 20

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UPHJS2007 Edit


2. (a) What is the test of grave and sudden provocation and state the extent to which it may mitigate the responsibility of the accused for the offence of murder? Answer referring to decided cases and illustrations. 15

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UPHJS2007 Edit


2. (b) ‘X’ was in desperate poverty and tried to persuade his wife to go to her mother's house. She refused and said that if ‘X’ insisted it was better that she was killed. After asking her two three times if she did not want to leave ‘X’ cut her with pen knife and killed her. Whether ‘X’ is liable criminally and if yes, for what offence? 10


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UPHJS2007 Edit


3. Distinguish between any two of the following:-- 10
(a) Kidnapping and abduction.
(b) Criminal misappropriation and criminal breach of trust.
(c) Simple hurt and grievous hurt.
(d) Culpable homicide and murder.

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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


1. (a) ‘A’, student of 1st year of Graduation along with three friends ‘B’ C and D were coming back to the home, in the early hours of 1st January, 2005 after attending a New Year Party. All of them were in an inebriated condition. ‘A’ was on the wheels, ‘B’ was on side seat while ‘C’ and ‘D’ were sitting at the back seat. Loud music was on in the car. Suddenly they found a police party having parked their Gypsy jeep in the middle of the road and a policeman waving them to stop the vehicle and they instead of stopping the vehicle accelerated the car to a high speed of 100 km., as a consequence of which two of the policemen were knocked down and killed. One policeman was dragged for almost ten metres before ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ got down and removed the body away from the car. The car sped away. The blood stains on the car were washed by all the four and, thereafter, the car was also got dented and painted. All the boys were arrested and sent for trial for an offence under Section 304/34 and 201/34,1.P.C.. The defence took the plea that it is case of 304A, I.P.C. at best against ‘A’ and 201, I.P.C. against ‘B’ to ‘D’.
Write a judgment deciding criminal liability of all of them. 10


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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


1. (b) (i) ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’ and ‘E’ conspired to kill ‘X’. They stole a car and drove to ‘X’s house to kill but in the way ‘A’ fell ill and remained seated in the car. Rest of the accused B, C, D, E murdered ‘X’. For what offences accused can be charge-sheeted and prosecuted ? 5

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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


1. (b) (ii) ‘A’ joined a party with a loaded gun and there in the midst of the party started indiscriminate firing killing ‘Y’ without any intention. What offence has been committed by ‘ A’ ? 5


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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


2. (a) (i) Where a constable who had a loaded but defective gun with him wanted to arrest an accused who was going on a bullock cart, by climbing on the cart and there was a scuffle between him and accused and in course of which the gun went off and killed the constable. Whether accused is guilty of culpable homicide or murder or none of them ?


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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


3 (a) (ii) The Forest Department had information about the operations of the Forest Mafia. On the day of the occurrence, Ram, a conscientious forest guard, caught ‘X’, ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ felling Sal trees without permit. Failing to escape, they confronted Ram and inflicted grave injuries on his legs and arms from blunt side of axe. They used the blunt side of the axe for inflicting two injuries on the head as well. Ram was found dead the next day. The post-mortem report revealed that death resulted on account of shock and haemorrhage due to ante-mortem injuries. Discuss the offence for which ‘X’, ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ can be prosecuted. 5


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UPHJS2009SPL Edit


3. (b) (i) Where a Hindu woman left her husband’s house with her minor daughter, and went to the house of ‘A’, and on the same day the daughter was married to ‘B’, the brother of ‘A’ without the father’s consent. Whether ‘A’ is guilty of any offence and if yes then under which section of I.P.C. ? 5

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CG HJS 2018 Edit

  1. (B) Describe the offences for causing of miscarriage; of injuries to unborn children; or the exposer of infants and of the concealment of the births and punishment prescribed for such offences. [ 5 marks ]

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UPPCS J 1991 Edit

6. (a) Explain the essential ingredients of any two of the following: (i) Kidnapping from lawful guardianship (ii) Forgery (iii) Criminal force (iv) Theft

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---CH17 Offences Against Property
Edit

CHAPTER XVII Of Offences Against Property

Of Theft

378. Theft. - Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property in order to such taking, is said to commit theft.

Explanation 1. - A thing so long as it is attached to the earth, not being moveable property, is not the subject of theft; but it becomes capable of being the subject of theft as soon as it is severed from the earth.

Explanation 2. - A moving effected by the same act which affects the severance may be a theft.

Explanation 3. - A person is said to cause a thing to move by removing an obstacle which prevented it from moving or by separating it from any other thing, as well as by actually moving it.

Explanation 4. - A person, who by any means causes an animal to move, is said to move that animal, and to move everything which, in consequence of the motion so caused, is moved by that animal.

Explanation 5. - The consent mentioned in the definition may be express or implied, and may be given either by the person in possession, or by any person having for that purpose authority either express or implied.

Illustrations

(a) A cuts down a tree on Z' ground, with the intention of dishonestly taking the tree out of Z's possession without Z's consent. Here, as soon as A has severed the tree in order to such taking, he has committed theft.

(b) A puts a bait for dogs in his pocket, and thus induces Z's dog to follow it. Here, if A's intention be dishonestly to take the dog out of Z's possession without Z's consent, A has committed theft as soon as Z's dog has begun to follow A.

(c) A meets a bullock carrying a box of treasure. He drives the bullock in a certain direction, in order that he may dishonestly take the treasure. As soon as the bullock begins to move, A has committed theft of the treasure.

(d) A, being Z's servant, and entrusted by Z with the care of Z's plate, dishonestly runs away with the plate, without Z's consent. A has committed theft.

(e) Z, going on a journey, entrusts his plate to A, the keeper of a warehouse, till Z shall return. A carries the plate to a goldsmith and sells it. Here the plate was not in Z's possession. It could not therefore be taken out of Z's possession, and A has not committed theft, though he may have committed criminal breach of trust.

(f) A finds a ring belonging to Z on a table in the house which Z occupies. Here the ring is in Z's possession, and if A dishonestly removes it, A commits theft.

(g) A finds a ring lying on the high road, not in the possession of any person. A by taking it, commits no theft, though he may commit criminal misappropriation of property.

(h) A sees a ring belonging to Z lying on a table in Z's house. Not venturing to misappropriate the ring immediately for fear of search and detection, A hides the ring in a place where it is highly improbable that it will ever be found by Z, with the intention of taking the ring from the hiding place and selling it when the loss is forgotten. Here A, at the time of first moving the ring, commits theft.

(i) A delivers his watch to Z, a jeweller, to be regulated. Z carries it to his shop. A, not owing to the jeweller any debt for which the jeweller might lawfully detain the watch as a security, enters the shop openly, takes his watch by force out of Z's hand, and carries it away. Here A, though he may have committed criminal trespass and assault, has not committed theft, inasmuch as what he did was not done dishonestly.

(j) If A owes money to Z for repairing the watch, and if Z retains the watch lawfully as a security for the debt, and A take the watch out of Z's possession, with the intention of depriving Z of the property as a security for his debt, he commits theft, inasmuch as he takes it dishonestly.

(k) Again, if A, having pawned his watch to Z, takes it out of Z's possession without Z's consent, not having paid what he borrowed on the watch, he commits theft, though the watch is his own property inasmuch as he takes it dishonestly.

(l) A takes an article belonging to Z out of Z's possession, without Z's consent, with the intention of keeping it until he obtains money from Z as a reward for its restoration. Here A takes dishonestly; A has therefore committed theft.

(m) A, being on friendly terms with Z, goes into Z's library in Z's absence, and takes away a book without Z's express consent for the purpose merely of reading it, and with the intention or returning it. Here, it is probable that A may have conceived that he had Z's implied consent to use Z's book. If this was A's impression, A has not committed theft.

(n) A asks charity from Z's wife. She gives A money, food and clothes, which A knows to belong to Z her husband. Here it is probable that A may conceive that Z's wife is authorised to give away alms. If this was A's impression, A has not committed theft.

(o) A is the paramour of Z's wife. She gives a valuable property, which A knows to belong to her husband Z, and to be such property as she has no authority from Z to give. If A takes the property dishonestly, he commits theft.

(p) A, in good faith, believing property belonging to Z to be A's own property, takes that property out of B's possession. Here, as A does not take dishonestly, he does not commit theft.

379. Punishment for theft. - Whoever commits theft shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

380. Theft in dwelling house, etc. - Whoever commits theft in any building, tent or vessel, which building, tent or vessel is used as a human dwelling, or used for the custody of property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

381. Theft by clerk or servant of property in possession of master. - Whoever, being a clerk or servant, or being employed in the capacity of a clerk or servant, commits theft in respect of any property in the possession of his master or employer, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

382. Theft after preparation made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of the theft. - Whoever commits theft, having made preparation for causing death, or hurt, or restraint, or fear of death, or of hurt, or of restraint, to any person, in order to the committing of such theft, or in order to the effecting of his escape after the committing of such theft, or in order to the retaining of property taken by such theft, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Illustrations

(a) A commits theft on property in Z's possession; and, while committing this theft, he has a loaded pistol under his garment, having provided this pistol for the purpose of hurting Z in case z should resist. A has committed the offence defined in this section.

(b) A picks Z's pocket, having posted several of his companions near him, in order that they may restrain Z, if Z should perceive what is passing and should resist, or should attempt to apprehend A. A has committed the offence defined in this section.

Of Extortion

383. Extortion. - Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person, or to any other, and thereby dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".

Illustrations

(a) A threatens to publish a defamatory libel concerning Z unless Z gives him money. He thus induces Z to give him money. A has committed extortion.

(b) A threatens Z that he will keep Z's child in wrongful confinement, unless Z will sign and deliver to A a promissory note binding Z to pay certain monies to A. Z signs and delivers the note. A has committed extortion.

(c) A threatens to send club-men to plough up Z' field unless Z will sign and deliver to B a bond binding Z under a penalty to deliver certain produce to B, and thereby induces Z to sign and deliver the bond. A has committed extortion.

(d) A, by putting Z in fear of grievous hurt, dishonestly induces Z to sign or affix his seal to a blank paper and deliver it to A. Z signs and delivers the paper to A. Here, as the paper so signed may be converted into a valuable security. A has committed extortion.

384. Punishment for extortion. - Whoever commits extortion shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

385. Putting person in fear of injury in order to commit extortion. - Whoever, in order to the committing of extortion, puts any person in fear, or attempts to put any person in fear, of any injury, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

386. Extortion by putting a person in fear of death on grievous hurt. - Whoever commits extortion by putting any person in fear of death or of grievous hurt to that person or to any other, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

387. Putting person in fear of death or of grievous hurt, in order to commit extortion. - Whoever, in order to the committing of extortion, puts or attempts to put any person in fear of death or of grievous hurt to that person or to any other, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

388. Extortion by threat of accusation of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life, etc. - Whoever commits extortion by putting any person in fear of an accusation against that person or any other of having committed or attempted to commit any offence punishable with death, or with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years or of having attempted to induce any other person to commit such offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the offence be one punishable under Section 377 of this Code, may be punished with [imprisonment for life].

389. Putting person in fear of accusation of offence, in order to commit extortion. - Whoever, in order to the committing of extortion, puts or attempts to put any person in fear of an accusation, against that person or any other, of having committed, or attempted to commit an offence punishable with death or with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the offence be punishable under Section 377 of this Code, may be punished with [imprisonment for life].

Of Robbery and Dacoity

390. Robbery. - In all robbery there is either theft or extortion.

When theft is robbery. - Theft is "robbery" if, in order to the committing of the theft, or in committing the theft, or in carrying away or attempting to carry away property obtained by the theft, the offender, for that end, voluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint, or fear of instant death or of instant hurt, or of instant wrongful restraint.

When extortion is robbery. - Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear, and commits the extortion by putting that person in fear of instant death, of instant hurt, or of instant wrongful restraint to that person or to some other person, and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear then and there to deliver up the thing extorted.

Explanation. - The offender is said to be present if he is sufficiently near to put the other person in fear of instant death, of instant hurt, or of instant wrongful restraint.

Illustrations

(a) A holds Z down and fraudulently takes Z's money and jewels from Z's clothes without Z's consent. Here A has committed theft, and in order to the committing of that theft, has voluntarily caused wrongful restraint to Z. A has therefore committed robbery.

(b) A meets Z on the high roads, shows a pistol, and demands Z's purse. Z in consequence, surrenders his purse. Here A has extorted the purse from Z by putting him in fear of instant hurt, and being at the time of committing extortion in his presence. A has therefore committed robbery.

(c) A meets Z and Z's child on the high road. A takes the child and threatens to fling it down a precipice unless Z delivers his purse. Z, in consequence delivers his purse. Here A has extorted the purse from Z by causing Z to be in fear of instant hurt to the child who is there present. A has therefore committed robbery on Z.

(d) A obtains property from Z by saying - "Your child is in the hands of my gang, and will be put to death unless you send us ten thousand rupees". This is extortion, and punishable as such; but it is not robbery, unless Z is put in fear of the instant death of his child.

391. Dacoity. - When five or more persons conjointly commit or attempt to commit a robbery, or where the whole number of persons conjointly committing or attempting to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity"

392. Punishment for robbery. - Whoever commits robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the robbery be committed on the highway between sunset and sunrise, the imprisonment may be extended to fourteen years.

393. Attempt to commit robbery. - Whoever attempts to commit robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also liable to fine.

394. Voluntarily causing hurt in committing robbery. - If any person, in committing or in attempting to commit robbery, voluntarily causes hurt, such person, and any other person jointly concerned in committing or attempting to commit such robbery, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

395. Punishment for dacoity. - Whoever commits dacoity shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

396. Dacoity with murder. - If any one of five or more persons, who are conjointly committing dacoity, commits murder in so committing dacoity, every one of those persons shall be punished with death, or imprisonment for life, or rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

397. Robbery or dacoity, with attempt to cause death or grievous hurt. - If, at the time of committing robbery or dacoity, the offender uses any deadly weapon, or causes grievous hurt to any person, or attempts to cause death or grievous hurt to any person, the imprisonment with which such offender shall be punished shall not be less than seven years.

398. Attempt to commit robbery or dacoity when armed with deadly weapon. - If, at the time of attempting to commit robbery or dacoity, the offender is armed with any deadly weapon, the imprisonment with which such offender shall be punished shall not be less than seven years.

399. Making preparation to commit dacoity. - Whoever makes any preparation for committing dacoity, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

400. Punishment for belonging to gang of dacoits. - Whoever, at any time after the passing of this Act, shall belong to a gang of persons associated for the purpose of habitually committing dacoity, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

401. Punishment for belonging to gang of thieves. - Whoever, at any time after the passing of this Act, shall belong to any wandering or other gang of persons associated for the purpose or habitually committing theft or robbery, and not being a gang of thugs or dacoits, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

402. Assembling for purpose of committing dacoity. - Whoever, at any time after the passing of this Act, shall be one of five or more persons assembled for the purpose of committing dacoity shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Of Criminal Misappropriation of Property

403. Dishonesty misappropriation of property. - Whoever dishonestly misappropriates or converts to his own use any moveable property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Illustrations

(a) A takes property belonging to Z out of Z's possession, in good faith, believing, at the time when he takes it, that the property belongs to himself. A is not guilty of theft; but if A, after descovering his mistake, dishonestly appropriates the property to his own use, he is guilty of an offence under this section.

(b) A, being on friendly terms with Z, goes into Z's library in Z's absence, and takes away a book without Z's express consent. Here, if A was under the impression that he had Z's implied consent to take the book for the purpose of reading it. A has not committed theft. But, if A afterwards sells the book for his own benefit, he is guilty of an offence under this Section.

(c) A and B, being joint owners of a horse, A takes the horse out of B's possession, intending to use it. Here, as A has a right to use the horse, he does not dishonestly misappropriate it. But, if a sells that horse and appropriates the whole proceeds to his own use, he is guilty of an offence under this Section.

Explanation 1. - A dishonest misappropriation for a time only is a misappropriation within the meaning of this Section.

Illustration

A finds a Government promissory note belonging to Z, bearing a blank endorsement. A, knowing that the note belongs to Z, pledges it with a banker as a security for a loan, intending at a future time to restore it to Z. A has committed an offence under this section.

Explanation 2. - A person who finds property not in the possession of any other person, and takes such property for the purpose of protecting it for, or of restoring it to, the owner, does not take or misappropriate it dishonestly, and is not guilty of an offence; but he is guilty of the offence above defined, if he appropriates it to his own use, when he knows or has the means of discovering the owner, or before he has used reasonable means to discover and give notice to the owner and has kept the property a reasonable time to enable the owner to claim it.

What are reasonable means or what is a reasonable time in such a case, is a question of fact.

It is not necessary that the finder should know who is the owner of the property, or that any particular person is the owner of it; it is sufficient if, at the time of appropriating it, he does not believe it to be his own property, or in good faith believe that the real owner cannot be found.

Illustrations

(a) A finds a rupee on the high road, not knowing to whom the rupee belongs. A picks up the rupee. Here A has not committed the offence defined in this section.

(b) A finds a letter on the road, containing a bank note. From the direction and contents of the letter he learns to whom the note belongs. He appropriates the note. He is guilty of an offence under this section.

(c) A finds a cheque payable to bearer. He can form no conjecture as to the person who has lost the cheque. But the name of the person, who has drawn the cheque, appears. A knows that this person can direct him to the person in whose favour the cheque was drawn. A appropriates the cheque without attempting to discover the owner. He is guilty of an offence under this section.

(d) A sees Z drop his purse with money in it. A picks up the purse with the intention of restoring it to Z, but afterwards appropriates it to his own use. A has committed an offence under this section.

(e) A finds a purse with money, not knowing to whom it belongs; he afterwards discovers that it belongs to Z, and appropriates it to his own use. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

(f) A finds a valuable ring, not knowing to whom it belongs. A sells it immediately without attempting to discover the owner. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

404. Dishonest misappropriation of property possessed by deceased person at the time of his death. - Whoever dishonestly misappropriates or converts to his own use property, knowing that such property was in the possession of a deceased person at the time of that person's decease, and has not since been in the possession of any person legally entitled to such possession, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the offender at the time of such person's decease was employed by him as a clerk or servant, the imprisonment may extend to seven years.

Illustration

Z dies in possession of furniture and money. His servant A, before the money comes into the possession of any person entitled to such possession, dishonestly misappropriates it. A has committed the offence defined in this section.

Of Criminal Breach of Trust

405. Criminal breach of trust. - Whoever, being in any manner entrusted with property, or with any dominion over property, dishonestly misappropriates or converts to his own use that property, or dishonestly uses or disposes of that property in violation of any direction of law prescribing the mode in which such trust is to be discharged, or of any legal contract, express or implied, which he has made touching the discharge of such trust, or wilfully suffers any other person so to do, commits "criminal breach of trust".

[Explanation *[1]*. - A person, being an employer [of an establishment whether exempted under section 17 of the Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 (19 of 1952), or not] who deducts the employee's contribution from the wages payable to the employee for credit to a Provident Fund or Family Pension Fund established by any law for the time being in force, shall be deemed to have been entrusted with the amount of the contribution so deducted by him and if he makes default in the payment of such contribution to the said Fund in violation of the said law, shall be deemed to have dishonestly used the amount of the said contribution in violation of a direction of law as aforesaid.]

[Explanation 2. - A person, being an employer, who deducts the employees' contribution from the wages payable to the employee for credit to the Employees' State Insurance Fund held and administered by the Employees' State Insurance Corporation established under the Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 (34 of 1948), shall be deemed to have been entrusted with the amount of the contribution so deducted by him and if he makes default in the payment of such contribution to the said Fund in violation of the said Act, shall be deemed to have dishonestly used the amount of the said contribution in violation of direction of law as aforesaid.]

Illustrations

(a) A, being executor to the will of a deceased person, dishonestly disobeys the law which directs him to divide the effects according to the will, and appropriates them to his own use. A has committed criminal breach of trust.

(b) A is a warehouse-keeper. Z going on a journey, entrusts his furniture to A, under a contract that it shall be returned on payment of a stipulated sum for warehouse room. A dishonestly sells the goods. A has committed criminal breach of trust.

(c) A, residing in Calcutta, is agent for Z, residing at Delhi. There is an express or implied contract between A and Z, that all sums remitted by Z to A shall be invested by A, according to Z's direction. Z remits a lakh of rupees to A, with directions to A to invest the same in Company's paper. A dishonestly disobeys the directions and employs the money in his own business. A has committed criminal breach of trust.

(d) But if A, in the last illustration, not dishonestly but in good faith, believing that it will be more for Z's advantage to hold shares in the Bank of Bengal, disobeys Z's directions, and buys shares in the Bank of Bengal, for Z, instead of buying Company's paper, here, though Z should suffer loss, and should be entitled to bring a civil action against A, on account of that loss, yet A, not having acted dishonestly, has not committed criminal breach of trust.

(e) A, a revenue-officer, is entrusted with public money and is directed by law, or bound by a contract, express or implied, with the Government, to pay into a certain treasury all the public money which he holds. A dishonestly appropriates the money. A has committed criminal breach of trust.

(f) A, a carrier, is entrusted by Z with property to be carried by land or by water. A dishonestly misappropriates the property. A has committed criminal breach of trust.

406. Punishment for criminal breach of trust. - Whoever commits criminal breach of trust shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

407. Criminal breach of trust by carrier, etc. - Whoever being entrusted with property as a carrier, wharfinger or warehouse-keeper, commits criminal breach of trust in respect of such property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

408. Criminal breach of trust by clerk or servant. - Whoever, being a clerk or servant or employed as a clerk or servant, and being in any manner entrusted in such capacity with property, or with any dominion over property, commits criminal breach of trust in respect of that property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

409. Criminal breach of trust by public servant, or by banker, merchant or agent. - Whoever, being in any manner entrusted with property, or with any dominion over property in his capacity of a public servant or in the way of his business as a banker, merchant, factor, broker, attorney or agent, commits criminal breach of trust in respect of that property, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Of the Receiving of Stolen Property

410. Stolen property. - Property, the possession whereof has been transferred by theft, or by extortion, or by robbery, and property which has been criminally misappropriated or in respect of which [ *] criminal breach of trust has been committed, is designated as "stolen property", [whether the transfer has been made, or the misappropriation or breach of trust has been committed, within or without [India].] But, if such property subsequently comes into the possession thereof, it then ceases to be stolen property.

411. Dishonestly receiving stolen property. - Whoever dishonestly receives or retains any stolen property, knowing or having reason to believe the same to be stolen property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

412. Dishonestly receiving property stolen in the commission of a dacoity. - Whoever dishonestly receives or retains any stolen property, the possession whereof he knows or has reason to believe to have been transferred by the commission of dacoity, or dishonestly receives from a person, whom he knows or has reason to believe to belong or to have belonged to a gang of dacoits, property which he knows or has reason to believe to have been stolen, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

413. Habitually dealing in stolen property. - Whoever habitually receives or deals in property which he knows or has reason to believe to be stolen property, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

414. Assisting in concealment of stolen property. - Whoever voluntarily assists in concealing or disposing of or making away with property which he knows or has reason to believe to be stolen property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years or with fine, or with both.

Of Cheating

415. Cheating. - Whoever, by deceiving any person, fraudulently or dishonestly induces the person so deceived to deliver any property to any person, or to consent that any person shall retain any property, or intentionally induces the person so deceived to do or omit to do anything which he would not do or omit if he were not so deceived, and which act or omission causes or is likely to cause damage or harm to that person in body, mind, reputation or property, is said to "cheat".

Explanation. - A dishonest concealment of facts is a deception within the meaning of this section.

Illustrations

(a) A, by falsely pretending to be in the Civil Service, intentionally deceives Z, and thus dishonestly induces Z to let him have on credit goods for which he does not mean to pay. A cheats.

(b) A, by putting a counterfeit mark on an article, intentionally deceives Z into a belief that this article was made by a certain celebrated manufacturer, and thus dishonestly induces Z to by and pay for the article. A cheats.

(c) A, by exhibiting to Z a false sample of an article, intentionally deceives Z into believing that the article corresponds with the sample, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to buy and pay for the article. A cheats.

(d) A, by tendering in payment for an article a bill on a house with which A keeps no money, and by which A expects that the bill will be dishonoured, intentionally deceives Z, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to deliver the article, intending not to pay for it. A cheats.

(e) A, by pledging as diamonds, articles which he knows are not diamonds, intentionally deceives Z, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to lend money. A cheats.

(f) A intentionally deceives Z into a belief that A means to repay any money that Z may lead to him and thereby dishonestly induces Z to lend him money. A not intending to repay it. A cheats.

(g) A intentionally deceives Z into a belief that A means to deliver to Z a certain quantity of indigo plant which he does not intend to deliver, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to advance money upon the faith of such delivery. A cheats; but if a, at the time of obtaining the money, intends to deliver the indigo plant, and afterwards breaks his contract and does not deliver it, he does not cheat, but is liable only to a civil action for breach of contract.

(h) A intentionally deceives Z into a belief that A has performed A's part of a contract made with Z, which he has not performed, and thereby dishonestly induces Z to pay money. A cheats.

(i) A sells and conveys an estate to B. A, knowing that in consequence of such sale he has no right to the property, sells or mortgages the same to Z, without disclosing the fact of the previous sale and conveyance to B, and receives the purchase or mortgage money from Z. A cheats.

416. Cheating by personation. - A person is said to "cheat by personation" if he cheats by pretending to be some other person, or by knowingly substituting one person for another, or representing that he or any other person is a person other than he or such other person really is.

Explanation. - The offence is committed whether the individual personated is a real or imaginary person.

Illustrations

(a) A cheats by pretending to be a certain rich banker of the same name. A cheats by personation.

(b) A cheats by pretending to be B, a person who is deceased. A cheats by personation.

417. Punishment for cheating. - Whoever cheats shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

418. Cheating with knowledge that wrongful loss may ensue to person whose interest offender is bound to protect. - Whoever cheats with the knowledge that he is likely thereby to cause wrongful loss to a person whose interest in the transaction to which the cheating relates, he was bound, either by law, or by a legal contract, to protect, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

419. Punishment for cheating by personation. - Whoever cheats by personation shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

420. Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property. - Whoever cheats and thereby dishonestly induces the person deceived to deliver any property to any person, or to make, alter or destroy the whole or any part of a valuable security, or anything which is signed or sealed, and which is capable of being converted into a valuable security, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Of Fraudulent Deeds and Dispositions of Property

421. Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent distribution among creditors. - Whoever dishonestly or fraudulently removes, conceals or delivers to any person, or transfer or causes to be transferred to any person, without adequate consideration, any property, intending thereby to prevent, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby prevent, the distribution of that property according to law among his creditors or the creditors of any other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

422. Dishonestly or fraudulently preventing debt being available for creditors. - Whoever dishonestly or fraudulently prevents any debt or demand due to himself or to any other person from being made available according to law for payment of his debts or the debts of such other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

423. Dishonest or fraudulent execution of deed of transfer containing false statement of consideration. - Whoever dishonestly or fraudulently signs, executes or becomes a party to any deed or instrument which purports to transfer or subject to any charge any property, or any interest therein, and which contains any false statement relating to the consideration for such transfer or charge, or relating to the person or persons for whose use or benefit it is really intended to operate, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

424. Dishonest or fraudulent removal or concealment of property. - Whoever dishonestly or fraudulently conceals or removes any property of himself or any other person, or dishonestly or fraudulently assists in the concealment or removal thereof, or dishonestly releases any demand or claim to which he is entitled, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Of Mischief

425. Mischief. - Whoever with intent to cause, or knowing that he is likely to cause, wrongful loss or damage to the public or to any person, causes the destruction of any property, or any such change in any property or in the situation thereof as destroys or diminishes its value or utility, or affect it injuriously, commits "mischief".

Explanation 1. - It is not essential to the offence of mischief that the offender should intend to cause loss or damage to the owner of the property injured or destroyed. It is sufficient if he intends to cause, or knows that he is likely to cause, wrongful loss or damage to any person by injuring any property, whether it belongs to that person or not.

Explanation 2. - Mischief may be committed by an act affecting property belonging to the person who commits the act, or to that person and others jointly.

Illustrations

(a) A voluntarily burns a valuable security belonging to Z intending to cause wrongful loss to Z. A has committed mischief.

(b) A introduces water into an ice-house belonging to Z and thus causes the ice to melt, intending wrongful loss to Z. A has committed mischief.

(c) A voluntarily throws into a river a ring belonging to Z, with the intention of thereby causing wrongful loss to Z. A has committed mischief.

(d) A, knowing that his effects are about to be taken in execution in order to satisfy a debt due from him to Z, destroys those effects, with the intention of thereby preventing Z from obtaining satisfaction of the debt, and of thus causing damage to Z. A has committed mischief.

(e) A, having insured a ship, voluntarily causes the same to be cast away, with the intention of causing damage to the under-writers. A has committed mischief.

(f) A causes a ship to be cast away, intending thereby to cause damage to Z who has lent money on bottomry on the ship. A has committed mischief.

(g) A, having joint property with Z in a horse, shoots the horse, intending thereby to cause wrongful loss to Z. A has committed mischief.

(h) A causes cattle to enter upon a field belonging to Z, intending to cause and knowing that he is likely to cause damage to Z's crop. A has committed mischief.

426. Punishment for mischief. - Whoever commits mischief shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine, or with both.

427. Mischief causing damage to the amount of fifty rupees. - Whoever commits mischief and thereby causes loss or damage to the amount of fifty rupees or upwards, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

428. Mischief by killing or maiming animal of the value of ten rupees. - Whoever commits mischief by killing, poisoning, maiming or rendering useless any animal or animals of the value of ten rupees or upwards, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

429. Mischief by killing or maiming cattle, etc. of any value or any animal of the value of fifty rupees. - Whoever commits mischief by killing, poisoning, mamiming or rendering useless, any elephant, camel, horse, mule, buffalo, bull, cow or ox, whatever may be the value thereof, or any other animal of the value of fifty rupees or upwards, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both.

430. Mischief by injury to works of irrigation or by wrongfully diverting water. - Whoever commits mischief by doing any act which causes, or which he knows to be likley to cause, a diminution of the supply of water for agricultural purposes, or for food or drink for human beings or for animals which are property, or for cleanliness or for carrying on any manufacture, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both.

431. Mischief by injury to public road, bridge, river or channel. - Whoever commits mischief by doing any act which renders or which he knows to be likely to render any public road, bridge, navigable river or navigable channel, natural or artificial, impassable or less safe for travelling or conveying property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both.

432. Mischief by causing inundation or obstruction to public drainage attended with damage. - Whoever commits mischief by doing any act which causes or which he knows to be likley to cause an inundation or an obstruction to any public drainage attended with injury or damage, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both.

433. Mischief by destroying, moving or rendering less useful a light-house or sea-mark. - Whoever commits mischief by destroying or moving any light-house or other light used as a sea-mark, or any sea-mark or buoy or other thing placed as a guide for navigators, or by any act which renders any such light-house, sea-mark, buoy or other such thing as aforesaid less useful as a guide for navigators, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

434. Mischief by destroying or moving, etc., a land-mark fixed by public authority. - Whoever commits mischief by destroying or moving any land-mark fixed by the authority of a public servant, or by any act which renders such land-mark less useful as such, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

435. Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to cause damage to amount of one hundred or (in case of agricultural produce) ten rupees. - Whoever commits mischief by fire or any explosive substance intending to cause, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause, damage to any property to the amount of one hundred rupees or upwards [or (where the property is agricultural produce) ten rupees or upwards], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

436. Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to destroy house, etc. - Whoever commits mischief by fire or any explosive substance, intending to cause, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause, the destruction of any building which is ordinarily used as a place of worship or as a human dwelling or as a place for the custody of property, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

437. Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a decked vessel or one of twenty tons burden. - Whoever commits mischief to any decked vessel or any vessel of a burden of twenty tons or upwards, intending to destroy or render unsafe, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby destroy or render unsafe, that vessel, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

438. Punishment for the mischief described in section 437 committed by fire or explosive substance. - Whoever commits, or attempts to commit, by fire or any explosive substance, such mischief as is described in the last preceding section, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

439. Punishment for intentionally running vessel aground or ashore with intent to commit theft, etc. - Whoever intentionally runs any vessel aground or ashore, intending to commit theft of any property contained therein or to dishonestly misappropriate any such property, or with intent that such theft or misappropriation of property may be committed, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

440. Mischief committed after preparation made for causing death or hurt. - Whoever commits mischief, having made preparation for causing to any person death, or hurt, or wrongful restraint, or fear of death, or of hurt, or of wrongful restraint, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Of Criminal Trespass

441. Criminal trespass. - Whoever enters into or upon property in the possession of another with intent to commit an offence or to intimidate, insult or annoy any person in possession of such property, or having lawfully entered into or upon such property, unlawfully remains there with intent thereby to intimidate, insult or annoy any such person, or with intent to commit an offence, is said to commit "criminal trespass".

442. House trespass. - Whoever commits criminal trespass by entering into or remaining in any building, tent or vessel used as a human dwelling or any building used as a place for worship, or as a place for the custody of property, is said to commit "house-trespass".,

Explanation. - The introduction of any part of the criminal trespasser's body is entering sufficient to constitute house-trespass.

443. Lurking house-trespass. - Whoever commits house-trespass having take precautions to conceal such house-trespass from some person who has a right to exclude or eject the trespasser from the building, tent or vessel which is the subject of the trespass, is said to commit "lurking house-trespass".

444. Lurking house-trespass by night. - Whoever commits lurking house-trespass after sunset and before sunrise, is said to commit "lurking house-trespass by night".

445. House breaking. - A person is said to commit "house-breaking" who commits house-trespass if he effects his entrance into the house or any part of it in any of the six ways hereinafter described; or if, being in the house or any part of it for the purpose of committing an offence, or, having committed an offence therein, he quits the house or any part of it in any of such six ways, that is to say -

First. - If he enters or quits through a passage made by himself, or by any abettor of the house-trespass, in order to the committing of the house-trespass.

Secondly. - If he enters or quits through any passage not intended by any person, other than himself or an abettor of the offence, for human entrance; or through any passage to which he has obtained access by scaling or climbing over any wall or building.

Thirdly. - If he enters or quits through any passage which he or any abettor of the house-trespass has opened, in order to the committing of the house-trespass by any means by which that passage was not intended by the occupier of the house to be opened.

Fourthly. - If he enters or quits by opening any lock in order to the committing of the house-trespass, or in order to the quitting of the house after a house-trespass.

Fifthly. - If he effects his entrance or departure by using criminal force or committing an assault or by threatening any person with assault.

Sixthly. - If he enters or quits by any passage which he knows to have been fastened against such entrance of departure, and to have been unfastened by himself or by an abettor of the house-trespass.

Explanation. - Any out-house or building occupied with a house, and between which and such house there is an immediate internal communication, is part of the house within the meaning of this section.

Illustrations

(a) A commits house-trespass by making a hole though the wall of Z's house, and putting his hand through the aperture. This is house-breaking.

(b) A commits house-trespass by creeping into a ship at a port-hole between decks. This is house-breaking.

(c) A commits house-trespass by entering Z's house through a window. This is house-breaking.

(d) A commits house-trespass by entering Z's house through the door, having opened a door which was fastened. This is house-breaking.

(e) A commits house-trespass by entering Z's house through the door, having lifted a latch by putting a wire through a hole in the door. This is house-breaking.

(f) A finds the key of Z's house door, which Z had lost, and commits house-trespass by entering Z's house, having opened the door with that key. This is house-braking.

(g) Z is standing in his doorway. A forces a passege by knocking Z down, and commits house-trespass by entering the house. This is house-breaking.

(h) Z, the door-keeper of Y, is standing in Y's doorway. A commits house-trespass by entering the house, having deterred Z from opposing him by threatening to beat him. This is house-breaking.

446. House-breaking by night. - Whoever commits house-breaking after sunset and before sunrise, is said to commit "house-breaking by night".

447. Punishment for criminal trespass. - Whoever commits criminal trespass shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine or which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

448. Punishment for house-trespass. - Whoever commits house-trespass shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

449. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with death. - Whoever commits house-trespass in order to the committing of any offence punishable with death, shall be punishable with imprisonment for life, or with rigorous imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

450. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment for life. - Whoever commits house-trespass in order to the committing of any offence punishable with [imprisonment for life], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

451. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment. - Whoever commits house-trespass in order to the committing of any offence punishable with imprisonment, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the offence intended to be committed is theft, the term of the imprisonment may be extended to seven years.

452. House-trespass after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint. - Whoever commits house-trespass, having made preparation for causing hurt to any person or for assaulting any person, or for wrongfully restraining any person, or for putting any person in fear of hurt, or of assault, or of wrongful restraint, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

453. Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking. - Whoever commits lurking house-trespass or house-breaking, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine.

454. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment. - Whoever commits lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in order to the committing of any offence punishable with imprisonment, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the offence intended to be committed is theft, the term of the imprisonment may be extended to ten years.

455. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint. - Whoever commits lurking house-trespass, or house-breaking, having made preparation for causing hurt to any person, or for assaulting any person, or for wrongfully restraining any person, or for putting any person in fear of hurt or of assault or of wrongful restraint, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

456. Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night. - Whoever commits lurking house-trespass by night, or house-breaking by night, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

457. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment. - Whoever commits lurking house-trespass by night, or house-breaking by night, in order to the committing of any offence punishable with imprisonment, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the offence intended to be committed is theft, the term of the imprisonment may be extended to fourteen years.

458. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night after preparation for hurt, assault, or wrongful restraint. - Whoever commits lurking house-trespass by night, or house-breaking by night, having made preparation for causing hurt to any person or for assaulting any person, or for wrongfully restraining any person, or for putting any person in fear of hurt, or of assault, or of wrongful restraint, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to fourteen years, and shall also be liable to fine.

459. Grievous hurt caused whilst committing lurking house-trespass or house-breaking. - Whoever, whilst committing lurking house-trespass, or house-breaking, causes grievous hurt to nay person or attempts to cause death or grievous hurt to any person, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

460. All persons jointly concerned in lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night punishable where death or grievous hurt caused by one of them. - If at the time of the committing of lurking house-trespass by night or house-breaking by night, any person guilty of such offence shall voluntarily cause or attempt to cause death or grievous hurt to any person, every person jointly concerned in committing such lurking house-trespass by night or house-breaking by night, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

461. Dishonestly breaking open receptacle containing property. - Whoever dishonestly or with intent to commit mischief, breaks open or unfastens any closed receptacle which contains or which he believes to contain property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

462. Punishment for same offence when committed by person entrusted with custody. - Whoever, being entrusted with any closed receptacle which contains or which he believes to contain property, without having authority to open the same, dishonestly, or with intent to commit mischief, breaks open or unfastens that receptacle, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

UPHJS2018-III Edit

91. In which of the following case(s) a dishonest misappropriation has NOT been committed :

1- "A" takes a book from his friend B's library for reading it overnight. 'B' was not present when 'A' took the book. The next day while coming to return the book "A" was tempted to see a movie but had no money, so he pawned the book to pay for the ticket

2. "A" and "B" where joint owners of a horse. "A" took the horse to another station for his exclusive use without informing "B". "A" did not return the horse and when it grew old sold it and pocketed the money.

3. "A" found a purse on the road, he picked it up and kept it in his pocket.


(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 3

(c) 3 alone

(d) 1,2 and 3

Answer

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UPHJS2018-I Edit

20. A police officer has received a sum of Rs.5000/- against fine from the persons violating traffic rules. Instead of depositing the fine money with State Treasury, he utilized the same for his personal use. What offence under Indian Penal Code, the police officer has committed :
(a) Criminal breach of trust
(b) Mischief
(c) Cheating the Government
(d) None of the above

Answer

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UPHJS2016 Edit

73. An employer deducting the employees contribution under Employees Provident Fund & Maintenance Provision Act, from the wages payable for credit to the fund, but does not deposit the same with the Fund. He is
guilty of committing :
(a) Criminal misappropriation of property
(b) Criminal breach of trust
(c) theft
(d) cheating

Answer

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UPHJS2016 Edit

90. "A" threatens to publish a defamatory libel concerning "Z" if he does not give him money. He thus induces "Z" to give money and as a result of which "Z" gives money to "A". In this case "A" has committed the offence of :
(a) Defamation
(b) Extortion
(c) Criminal intimidation
(d) Mischief

Answer

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UPHJS2016 Edit

91. In which of the following case(s) a dishonest misappropriation has NOT been committed :

1- "A" takes a book from his friend B's library for reading it overnight. 'B' was not present when 'A' took the book. The next day while coming to return the book "A" was tempted to see a movie but had no money, so he pawned the book to pay for the ticket

2. "A" and "B" where joint owners of a horse. "A" took the horse to another station for his exclusive use without informing "B". "A" did not return the horse and when it grew old sold it and pocketed the money.

3. "A" found a purse on the road, he picked it up and kept it in his pocket.


(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 3

(c) 3 alone

(d) 1,2 and 3

Answer

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UPHJS2014 Edit

13. ‘B’ takes a gold ring of ‘A’ out of ‘A’s possession without ‘A’s consent with the intention of keeping it till ‘A’ gives ‘B’ some money for its restoration to ‘A’, ‘B’ is guilty of-
(A) Cheating
(B) Criminal beach of trust
(C) Criminal misappropriate of property
(D) Theft

Answer

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UPHJS2012 Edit

76. ‘A’ and ‘B’ were about to travel from Allahabad to Delhi by the same train. ‘B’ had two tickets from Allahabad to Aligarh and ‘A’ had a ticket from Allahabad to Delhi ‘A’ voluntarily handed over his ticket to ‘B’ in order to check that it was the right one; ‘B’ under the pretence of returning ‘A’s ticket substituted it by one of his own and kept ‘A’s ticket. What offence did ‘B’ commit?
(A) Theft
(B) Extortion
(C) Criminal misappropriation
(D) Cheating.

Answer

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UPHJS2012 Edit

84. ‘A’ finds a ring belonging to ‘Z’ on a table in the house which ‘Y’ occupies . A dishonestly removes the ring. A has committed which of the following offence?
(A) Criminal breach of trust
(B) Criminal misappropriation of property
(C) Theft
(D) Dishonestly receiving stolen property.

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit

51. For an offence of cheating, intention to cheat should be present-
(A) in the end
(B) in the middle
(C) Both the above
(D) from the very beginning

Answer

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UPHJS2012 Edit


2. (a) Discuss the law relating to criminal intimidation. In what way extortion is different from criminal intimidation ? 10

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit


2(b) (i) ‘A’ removed ornaments from a dead body and kept it with him. What offence has been committed by ‘A’.

Answer

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UPHJS2009 Edit


2. (b) (ii) ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’ and ‘E’ broke into a house during the night. ‘A’ and ‘B’ carried instruments useful for house breaking, ‘C’ and ‘D’ carried knives and ‘E’ a revolver. As ‘C’ was snatching a gold chain forcibly from an inmate, another inmate ‘P’ pointed a gun on him. Before ‘P’ could shoot, ‘E’ shot him dead. All the intruders escaped with the golden chain and other ornaments. Outside the house a neighbour ‘N’ attempted to catch hold of ‘D’ but ‘D’ killed him by stabbing. What are the offences for which these five may be charged? Is it possible to plead the right of private defence with respect to killing of ‘P’? 10

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---CH18 Offences Relating to Documents and Property Marks

---CH19 Criminal Breach of Contracts of Service

---CH20 Offences Relating to Marriage

---CH20a Cruelty by Husband or Husbands Relatives

---CH21 Defamation
Edit

499. Defamation. Whoever, by words either spoken or intended to be read, or by signs or by visible representations, makes or publishes any imputation concerning any person intending to harm, or knowing or having reason to believe that such imputation will harm, the reputation of such person, is said, except in the cases hereinafter expected, to defame that person.

Explanation 1.—It may amount to defamation to impute anything to a deceased person, if the imputation would harm the reputation of that person if living, and is intended to be hurtful to the feelings of his family or other near relatives.

Explanation 2.It may amount to defamation to make an imputation concerning a company or an association or collection of persons as such.

Explanation 3.An imputation in the form of an alternative or expressed ironically, may amount to defamation.

Explanation 4.No imputation is said to harm a person's reputation, unless that imputation directly or indirectly, in the estimation of others, lowers the moral or intellectual character of that person, or lowers the character of that person in respect of his caste or of his calling, or lowers the credit of that person, or causes it to be believed that the body of that person is in a loathsome state, or in a state generally considered as disgraceful.

First Exception.—Imputation of truth which public good requires to be made or published.—It is not defamation to impute anything which is true concerning any person, if it be for the public good that the imputation should be made or published. Whether or not it is for the public good is a question of fact.

Second Exception.—Public conduct of public servants.—It is not defamation to express in good faith any opinion whatever respecting the conduct of a public servant in the discharge of his public functions, or respecting his character, so far as his character appears in that conduct, and no further.

Third Exception.—Conduct of any person touching any public question.—It is not defamation to express in good faith any opinion whatever respecting the conduct of any person touching any public question, and respecting his character, so far as his character appears in that conduct, and no further.

Fourth Exception.—Publication of reports of proceedings of courts.—It is not defamation to publish a substantially true report of the proceedings of a Court of Justice, or of the result of any such proceedings.

Explanation.—A Justice of the Peace or other officer holding an enquiry in open Court preliminary to a trial in a Court of Justice, is a Court within the meaning of the above section.

Fifth Exception.—Merits of case decided in court or conduct of witnesses and others concerned.—It is not defamation to express in good faith any opinion whatever respecting the merits of any case, civil or criminal, which has been decided by a Court of Justice, or respecting the conduct of any person as a party, witness or agent, in any such case, or respecting the character of such person, as far as his character appears in that conduct, and no further.

Sixth Exception.—Merits of public performance.—It is not defamation to express in good faith any opinion respecting the merits of any performance which its author has submitted to the judgment of the public, or respecting the character of the author so far as his character appears in such performance, and no further.

Explanation.—A performance may be submitted to the judgment of the public expressly or by acts on the part of the author which imply such submission to the judgment of the public.

Seventh Exception.—Censure passed in good faith by person having lawful authority over another.—It is not defamation in a person having over another any authority, either conferred by law or arising out of a lawful contract made with that other, to pass in good faith any censure on the conduct of that other in matters to which such lawful authority relates.

Eighth Exception.—Accusation preferred in good faith to authorised person.—It is not defamation to prefer in good faith an accusation against any person to any of those who have lawful authority over that person with respect to the subject-matter of accusation.

Ninth Exception.—Imputation made in good faith by person for protection of his or other's interests.—It is not defamation to make an imputation on the character of another provided that the imputation be made in good faith for the protection of the interest of the person making it, or of any other person, or for the public good.

Tenth Exception.—Caution intended for good of person to whom conveyed or for public good.—It is not defamation to convey a caution, in good faith, to one person against another, provided that such caution be intended for the good of the person to whom it is conveyed, or of some person in whom that person is interested, or for the public good.

500. Punishment for defamation.— Whoever defames another shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

UPHJS2018-II Edit

100. Which of the following case upheld the constitutionality of Sections 499 and 500" of the Indian Penal Code?
(a) Subramanian Swamy v. Union of India, Ministry of Law and others, 2016 (2) MLJ (Crl) 542
(b) Jacob Mathew v. State of Punjab and another, (2005) 6 SCC 1
(c) Brij Bhushan v. State of Delhi, AIR 1952 SC 329
(d) Manoj Narula v. Union 0 India, (2014) 9 SCC 1

Answer

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---CH22 Criminal Intimidation, Insult and Annoyance

---CH23 Attempts to Commit Offences