12. Which of the following irregularities of a Magistrate, not empowered by law to do so, vitiates the proceedings?
(a) To hold inquiry under section 176 Code of Criminal Procedure
(b) To make over a case under sub-section (2) of Section 192 Code of Criminal
(c) To take cognizance of an offence under clause (c) _of, sub-section (1) of
Section 190 of the Code of Criminal Procedure
(d) To tender pardon to accomplice under section 306 of "the Code of Criminal
Answer and NotesAnswer is C
Explanation: Section 461 of Code of Criminal Procedure lays down the irregularities which vitiate the proceedings. According to section 461(k) if the magistrate, not being empowered by law, takes cognizance o~ an offence under section 190(1) (c) then the proceedings shall be void.